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The Technical Aspects,Terms And Rules of Ghazal Writing.....
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Arrow The Technical Aspects,Terms And Rules of Ghazal Writing..... - 7th December 2001, 07:51 AM

Dear Readers.....

I'm writing this article for people who has always wondered about how a Ghazal is written.
Who are keen to know the technical side of Ghazal writing

Note that i'm only trying to pass this information to you based on what i had been taught.

What is a Ghazal...?
A Ghazal is a combination of :-

1.Beher (Meter

1. What is Beher (Meter) ...?

Beher is the rhythm of a sheyr which compliments the connecting misra's (lines) of a ghazal...all the misra's in a sher and all the sheyrs in a ghazal has to follow the same beher. There are many different beher's and it demands serious studies to be understood.Apart from those set beher's a shayar can also creat his own beher as long as the sheyr is easy to recite and can be pronounced in rhythm n match the "wazan" of the ghazal..

2.What is Radeef...?

Radeef is the word(s) which ends the first two misra's and the second misra of every sheyr in a is not necessary to use radeef in all the Ghazals...such Ghazals are called "gair-muraddaf" ghazals...but this is not what tradition allows...!!

Example of a Ghazal with radeef and kafiya :- (Abdul Hameed "adam")

phuuloN kii aarazuu meN baDe zaKhm khaaye haiN
lekin chaman ke Khaar bhii ab tak paraaye haiN

us par haraam hai Gam-e-dauraaN kii talKhiyaaN
jiske nasiib meN terii zulfoN ke saaye haiN

mahashar meN le gaii thii tabiyat kii saadagii
lekin baDe Khuluus se ham lauT aaye haiN

aayaa huuN yaad baad-e-fanaa unako bhii 'Adam'
kyaa jald mere siikh pe imaan laaye haiN

***here.."haiN" is the radeef of this Ghazal***

ai maigusaaro savere savere
Kharaabaat ke gird phere pe phere

(Abdul Hameed "adam")

here....radeef is last words of the sheyr are not same so its a "Ghair-muraddaf" radeef is that exact word or words that ends the first two lines and every second line of a ghazal...!!

3. What is Kafiya...?

Kafiya is that common sounding word that's used before "radeef"...for example in first ghazal mentioned above "khaaye".."paraaye"...."laaye" is the kafiya or should is say "aaye" is the kafiya because "aaye" is the sound that gives "wazan" to the radeef of the ghazal.

4.What is Matla...?

The very first sheyr or the first two misra's of a ghazal where radeef is used in both misra's is the "Matla" of a ghazal...!!

for example...

saaGar se lab lagaa ke bahut Khush hai zindagii
sahan-e-chaman meN aake bahut Khush hai zindagii

Matla is very necessary for the weight of a ghazal because the whole ghazal depends on kafiya and radeef used in the Matla.

5.What is Maktaa

Maktaa is the last sheyr of a ghazal where shayar use his "takhhallus" to leave his signature on his composition...A poet rather not have a maktaa rather than having a meaningless maktaa...its one of those finer points of shayri where shayar can express himself or his feelings or talk about anything using the rhythm of the ghazal...!!

example... ( Shakeel Badayuni ) :-

Khush huuN ki meraa husn-e-talab kaam to aayaa
Khaalii hii sahii merii taraf jaam to aayaa

log un se ye kahate haiN ki kitane haiN "Shakeel" aap
is husn ke sadaqe meN meraa naam to aayaa


Dear friends...thsi article is far from complete as far as depth and rules of ghazal writing are concerned..each topic especially "beher" needs to be studied thoroughly if someone wants to understand this fine art of shayri.

These are just the basic points that someone needs to look at before writing or understanding a ghazal...if anyone have any questions at all..i'll be overwhelmed to answer...i have an advice for shayar's who has just begun to write and are serious about learning NEED to find an ustad who can guide you...find someone whom you can show your compositons...who can explain each term step by step and seek an advice..coz there's a lot more...A LOT shayri than you can imagine...!!

I'll try to post more articles like this...its an attempt to bring all shayri lovers more closer to the real picture of shayri.

On the closing Note i'd like to thank all my friends out there who have supported me with all their strength...!!


mat poochiye kya shugl raha apna shab-e-gam
ye shama bhujhaai kabhi woh shama bhujaai

"har aansu" mein thi neelam si chamak ....par dunyia hee ise na dekh paayi


is tarhe teri yaad meiN har shaam dhaley hai
goyaa koyi nagin si kalejey pe chaley hai


Last edited by maikasH; 19th January 2007 at 06:36 AM..
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