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the linguistic development of Hindi with respect to the works of the following poets
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Thumbs up the linguistic development of Hindi with respect to the works of the following poets - 22nd June 2010, 11:20 AM

We will look at the linguistic development of Hindi with respect to the works of the following poets and writers of Hindi:

1. Amir Khusro (अमीर खुसरो)
2. Kabir (कबीर)
3. Tulsidas (तुलसीदास)
4. Devdatt (देवदत्त)
5. Sumitranandan Pant (सुमित्रानंदन पंत)
6. Harivanshrai Bachchan (हरिवंशराय बच्चन)

We will look at the following texts which are a source for the works of the above mentioned poets and writers:

1. Amir Khusro
2. Kabir-Meemansa by Ramchandra Tiwari and Saras Kavya Sangrah
कबीर-मीमांसा, रामचन्द्र तिवारी द्वारा तथा सरस काव्य संग्रह
3. Shri Ramcharitmanas by Tulsidas
श्रीरामचरितमानस, तुलसीदासविरचित
4. Dev-Sudha by Dr. Govardhannath Shukla
देव-सुधा, डा. गोवर्धननाथ शुक्ल द्वारा
5. Rashmibandh by Sumitranandan Pant
रश्मिबंध, सुमित्रानंदन पंत द्वारा
6. Madhushala [and Madhukalash by Harivanshrai Bachchan
मधुशाला और मधुकलश, हरिवंशराय बच्चन द्वारा

>> description of the chosen writers, their life, their writing styles and some specificity of the chosen texts.

Amir Khusro
Amir Khusro was born in 1253 in Patiyali (Etah district in U.P.). He compiled his first divan of poetry Tuhfatus-Sighr in 1250. He wrote the famous ‘Tughlaq Nama’ in 1321 and died in 1325.
Khusro is regarded as the first poet (Adikavi) of Hindi. His works are in a language which is a mixture of Braj, Hariyanvi, Khadi Boli, Farsi and sometimes Sanskrit. He himself called it Hindavi. The various styles of poetry used by him are:

1. Dohe (दोहे) – These are generally composed of two lines and are very brief.
खीर पकायी जतन से, चरखा दिया जला।
आया कुत्ता खा गया, तू बैठी ढोल बजा।।

2. Keh-mukarni (कह-मुकरनी) – They are used to point to the ‘lover’ but they finally turn out to be some very mundane thing.
लिपट-लिपट के वाके सोई, छाती से छाती लगाके रोई।
दांत से दांत बजे तो ताड़ा, ऐ सखी साजन ? ना सखी जाड़ा।

3. Dosukhne (दोसुखने) – In these two questions have the same answer and there is a pun.
समोसा क्यूं न खाया ? जूता क्यूं न पहना ? तला न था।
सितार क्यूं न बजा ? औरत क्यूं न नहाई ? परदा न था।

4. Paheliyaan (पहेलियाँ) – These are interesting riddles.
एक परख है सुंदर मूरत, जो देखे वो उसी की सूरत।
फिक्र पहेली पायी ना, बोझन लागा आयी ना।।

5. Geet (गीत) – They are songs.
6. Chaubole (चौबोले) – They have a doha and four chhands.
7. Lori (लोरी) – They are evening songs.


Kabir
Kabir lived for 120 years approximately in the period from 1455 to 1575. There is a lot of confusion as to where he was born (Maghar/ Belhara/ Mithila/ Kashi) but he definitely died at Maghar.
He marks the beginning of the ‘Bhaktikaal’ in Hindi literature. His earliest works are in Poorvi but later on he used a mixture of Avadhi, Braj, Rajasthani, Khadi Boli and Punjabi. The various styles of poetry used by him are:

1. Sakhi (साखी) – ‘Sakhi’ is the Apabhransha form of Sakshi. It has the sayings and truths about life discovered by saints. This was the favourite style of Kabir. He said:
साखी आँखी ज्ञान की – Sakhi are the eyes of knowledge
जब मैं था तब हरि नहीं, अब हरि हैं मैं नाहिं।
सब अँधियारा मिट गया, दीपक रेखा माहिं।। (कबीर)

2. Sabad (सबद) – ‘Sabad’ or ‘Pad’ is synonymous with the word of the supreme lord. It has been used by saints to preach truth. Kabir says:
कहत कबीर सोई सुनि जागे, सबद-बान जेहि अन्तर लागे
जाके नाम न आवत हिये।
काह भये नर कासि बसे से, का गंगाजल पिये,
काह भये नर जटा बढ़ाए. काह गुदरी के लिये।
काह भयौ कंठी के बाँधे, काह तिलक के दिये,
कहत कबीर सुनो भाई साधो, नाहक ऐसे जिये। (कबीर, सरस काव्य संग्रह)

3. Ramaini (रमैनी) – This word has probably originated from Ramayan and resembles a style which has couplets and quadruplets.
4. Bavni (बावनी) – It uses the 52 letters (16 vowels and 36 consonants) of the Nagri alphabet and each couplet represents a letter.
5. Chauntisa (चौंतीसा) – This is a form of Bavni wherein the vowels are left out and only 34 consonants are used.
6. Thinti (थिंती) – This form makes use of the days of a fortnight to preach religion, knowledge and wisdom.
7. Vaar (वार) – This is similar to Thinti where the seven days of the week are used.
8. Chanchar (चाँचर) – This is a folk song which is sung during the spring festival.
9. Basant (बसंत) – These are songs sung in spring.
बारह-मास बसंत होय, परमारथ बूझै बिरला कोय।
बरिसै अगिनि अखंड धार, हरिहर भौ-बन ठारह बार।
पनिया आदर धरी न लोय, पवन गहै कस मलिन धोय।

10. Hindola (हिंडोला) – These are songs sung while sitting on swings during spring.
कोई प्रेम की पेंग झुलावै।
भुज के खंभ और प्रेम के रस से,
तन-मन आजु झुलाव रे। (कबीर) [15]

11. Kehra (केहरा) – This is also a song which is based on the ‘Kaharva Taal’.
12. Beli (बेलि) – This is a style which seems to blossom like a creeper.
राम गुन बेलड़ी रे, अवधू गोरषनाथि जांणि।
नाति स्वरूप न छाया जाकै, विरध करै बिन पांणि।।
बेलड़िया द्वै अणीं पहूँती, गगन पहूँती सैली।
सहज बेलि जब फूलण लागी, डाली कूपल भेल्ही।।

13. Birhuli (बिरहुली) – This is sung to do away with snakes and other poisonous animals.
मैं कासों कहों आपन पिय की बात री।
कहैं कबीर बिछुड़ नहिं मिलिहौ
ज्यों तरवर छोड़ बनधाम री।

14. Vipramatisi (विप्रमतीसी) – This word is the Apabhransha form of ‘Vipr-matiteesi’. This was probably used to criticize the Brahmins.
जब मैं भूला रे भाई,
मेरे सतगुरु जुगत लखाई।
किरिया-करम-अचार छाँड़ा, छाँड़ा तीरथ का न्हाना।
सगरी दुनिया भई सयानी, मैं ही इक बौराना।


Tulsidas
Tulsidas lived in Kashi (Varanasi) around 1581-1680. He was born at Rajapur (Banda district in U.P.) or in Soron (Etah district in U.P.). He was a great Hindi poet and his greatest contribution to literature is Shree Ramcharitmanas which is one of the most religious books for Hindus apart from Shrimad Bhagvad Gita.
Apart from Ramcharitmanas and Vinay Patrika, Tulsidas has other literary works to his name – Dohavali, Geetavali, Parvatimangal, Krishnageetavali, Kavitt Ramayana, Jankimangal etc. He wrote primarily in Avadhi. His avadhi has a strong influence from Sanskrit. He also used Braj in some of his texts like Geetavali and Kavitavali.

We find words from Bhojpuri, Bundelkhandi, Arbi and Farsi here and there. He used diverse writing styles like:

1. Chhapaya (छप्पय) – It is made of six words.
2. Barvaye (बरवै) – Tulsidas has used this style in Barvaye Ramayan.
चम्पक हरवा अंग मिलि अधिक सुहाइ।
जानि परै सिय हियरे जब कुम्हिलाइ।। (तुलसीदास, बरवै रामायण) [16]

3. Kavitt (कवित्त) – It is a beautiful style for writing poems. This excerpt here is from Kavitavali.
साँवरे गोरे सलोने सुभायँ, मनोहरता जित मैन लियो है।
बान कमान निषंग कसें, सिर सोहैं जटा, मुनि-बेषु कियो है।।
संग लिएँ बिधुबैनी बधु, रति को जेहि रंचक रूपु दियो है।
पाँयन तौ पनहीं न, पयादेहिं क्यों चलिहैं ? सकुचात हियो है।।

4. Geet (गीत) – ‘Jhoolna’ (झूलना) which is a kind of song is presented here:
मत्तभट-मुकुट दसकंध-साहस-सइल-
सृंग-बिद्दरनि जनु बज्र टाँकी।
दसन धरि धरनि चिक्करत दिग्गज कमठ
सेष संकुचित संकित पिनाकी।। (तुलसीदास) [17]

5. Dohe (दोहे) – It has 13 and then 11 meters in each line and is formed of two lines.
बार बार कौसल्या बिनय करइ कर जोरि।
अब जनि कबहूँ ब्यापै प्रभु मोहि माया तोरि।।

6. Sortha (सोरठा) – It has 11 and then 13 meters in each line and is formed of two lines.
बंदऊँ गुरु पद कंज कृपा सिंधु नररूप हरि।
महामोह तम पुंज जासु बचन रबि कर निकर।।

7. Chaupaayi (चौपाई) – It has four charans and 16 meters.
अगनित रबि ससि सिव चतुरानन। बहु गिरि सरित सिंधु महि कानन।।
काल कर्म गुन ग्यान सुभाऊ। सोउ देखा जो सुना न काऊ।।

8. Chhand (छंद) -
भए प्रगट कृपाला दीनदयाला कौसल्या हितकारी।
हरषित महतारी मुनि मन हारी अद्भुत रूप बिचारी।।
लोचन अभिरामा तनु घनस्यामा निज आयुध भुज चारी।
भूषन बनमाला नयन बिसाला सोभासिंधु खरारी।।

9. Savaiye (सवैये) – It has some more meters than the normal chhands
बर दंत की पंगति कुंद कली अधराधर पल्लव खोलन की।
चपला चमकै घन बीच जगै छवि मोतिन माल अमोलन की।।

Ramcharitmanas is the hindi version of Valmiki ramayan. It has become very popular among Indians. It has been widely translated, explained and researched by a huge number of scholars. Ramcharitmanas is the story of Lord Rama but it encompasses all the values which are important for a healthy society. It portrays the ideal king, father, son, brother, husband, mother, wife and sister. It is one of the greatest epics of all times.


Devdatt
Devdatt or Dev was born at Pansari tola Balalpura (Etawah districtin U.P.) in 1730. He died in 1824. He has written 72 epics and is known to have inspired 52 more. He was a famous poet of the Ritikaal. Some of his works are Bhava-vilaas, Ashtyaam, Prem Chandrika, Ras-vilaas, Devshatak etc.
At the time when Dev started writing Braj had become the literary medium of expression. He is regarded as an exponent of Braj. He also used many Sanskrit words in his writings. We also find words from Avadhi, Khadi Boli, Arbi and Farsi in his works. His writing styles include:

1. Savaiye (सवैये) –
नाचत मोर नचावत चातिक, गावत दादुर आरभटी में,
कोकिल की किलकार सुने बिरही बपुरे विष घूँटैं घटी में।

2. Kavitt (कवित्त) –
चाँदनी महल बैठी चाँदनी के कौतुक को,
चाँदनी सी राधा-छवि चाँदनी बिसाल रे;
चंद की कला-सी देव दासी संग फूली फिरै,
फूल-से दुकूल पैन्हे फूलन की मालरैं।

3. Dohe (दोहे) –
श्री राधे ब्रजदेवि जै सुन्दर नंदकिशोर।
दुरित हरौ चित के चितै नैसुक दै दृग-कोर।।


Sumitranandan Pant
Sumitranandan Pant was born in Kausani (Almora district of Uttaranchal) in 1957. He died on 28th December, 1977. He started writing in 1975 and composed a huge number of poems, songs, plays, essays and short stories. He was a writer of the Chhayavaad style. He gave a flowery and melodious colour to his poems. He was awarded the Jnanpith award for his famous collection of poems ‘Chidambara’.
His wrote in Khadi Boli. His famous works are:
1. Poems – Paalav, Veena, Gunjan, Granthi, Veena
2. Stories – Paanch Kahaniyaan
3. Plays – Jyotsna, Rajatshikhar, Shilpi

The book ‘Rashmibandh’ is a compilation of 99 poems by Pant. The revised addition with some new poems was published in 1971. It has poems like Pratham Rashmi, Taaj, Baapu, Himadri, Yathatathya and Yatharth aur Adarsh. A few lines from Pratham Rashmi:
प्रथम रश्मि का आना रंगिणि, तूने कैसे पहचाना ?
कहाँ, कहाँ हे बाल-विहंगिनि ! पाया, तूने यह गाना ?
सोई थी तू स्वप्न नीड़ में पंखों के मुख में छिपकर,
झूम रहे थे, घूम द्वार पर, प्रहरी-से जुगुनू नाना !


Harivanshrai Bachchan
Harivanshrai Bachchan was born in Prayag (Allahabad) on 27th November, 1907. He died in Mumbai on 18th January, 2003. He was a noted writer, critic, lyricist and the most famous representative of the ‘Halavaad’ sect of writers. He received the Sahitya Akademi Award in 1969 and Padma Bhushan in 1976.
He was a writer of Khadi Boli but frequently used words from Sanskrit and Urdu. He was influenced by Omar Khayyam's Rubaiyaat which led him to write his famous trilogy of Madhushala (1935), Madhubala (1936), and Madhukalash (1937). We present the last lines of Madhushala here to witness his writing style:
बड़े-बड़े नाजों से मैंने पाली है साकीबाला ;
कलित कल्पना का ही इसने सदा उठाया है प्याला ;
मान दुलारों से ही रखना इस मेरी सुकुमारी को ;
विश्व, तुम्हारे हाथों में अब सौंप रहा हूँ मधुशाला।


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22nd June 2010, 12:14 PM

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Thanks for sharing this amazing info about all the milestones of hindi poetry




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