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Linguistic Development & Historical Development of Hindi
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Post Linguistic Development & Historical Development of Hindi - 22nd June 2010, 10:09 AM

the linguistic development of Hindi in terms of the following phenomena:

1. Script
2. Phonology
2. Lexicon
3. Morphology

>> Script-based Development
Let us begin with looking at the changes which have occurred in the script for Hindi i.e. Devnagri (देवनागरी).

the changes which have occurred in the script for Hindi i.e. Devnagri (देवनागरी) {CLICK HERE}



Development of Devnagri Alphabet {CLICK HERE}



>> Phonological Development
Some major changes have taken place in the sounds of Hindi are articulated here:

1. The use of Anuswaar ं (अनुस्वार) now also symbolizes the nasal consonants ङ्, ञ्, ण्, न् and म् .
ङ् गङ्गा → गंगा
ञ् चञ्चल → चंचल
ण् दण्ड → दंड
न् सन्त → संत
म् सम्पत्ति → संपत्ति

2. Annunasik ँ (अनुनासिक) is also used in place of Anuswaar ं (अनुस्वार)
3. The use of Visarg ः (विःसर्ग) has almost stopped and words seem to have simply deleted it. For example:
दुःख → दुख, छः → छह
4. A vowel which is not so much in use now ‘ऋ’ is now pronounced as ‘रि’
5. Words which used to end in pure consonants now have a vowel attached to them
जगत् → जगत
भगवान् → भगवान

>> Lexical Development
We will look at changes in nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and verbs.

>> Nouns

1. अग्नि
अग्नि → अगिनि → अग्गि → आगि, आगी, आग

ज्यों तिल माँहैं तेल है, ज्यों चकमक में आगि।
तेरा साईं तुज्झ में, जागि सकै तो जागि।। (कबीर)

नयन स्त्रवहिं जलु निज हित लागी।
जरैं न पाव देह बिरहागी।। (तुलसीदास, सुंदरकाण्ड)

बूड़ी जल ही मैं दिन-यामिनिहुँ जागी भौहें,
धूम सिर छायो बिरहागिनि बिलखियाँ।। (देव, देव-सुधा)

मैं हृदय में अग्नि लेकर एक युग से जल रहा हूँ। (बच्चन, मधुशाला)

2. नयन
नयन → नैन, नैना

नैनों की कर कोठरी, पुतली पलंग बिछाय।
पलकों की चिक डारिके, पिय को लिया रिझाय।। (कबीर)

गारीं सकल कैकइहि देहिं।
नयन बिहीन कीन्ह जग जेहिं।। (तुलसीदास, अयोध्याकाण्ड)

कपोलों में उर के मृदु भाव
श्रवण नयनों में प्रिय बर्ताव ; (पंत, आँसू की बालिका)

3. प्रिय
प्रिय → पिय → पी, पिया

खुसरो रैन सुहाग की, जागी पी के संग।
तन मेरो मन पियो को, दोउ भए एक रंग।। (खुसरो)

नैनों की कर कोठरी, पुतली पलंग बिछाय।
पलकों की चिक डारिके, पिय को लिया रिझाय।। (कबीर)

कपोलों में उर के मृदु भाव
श्रवण नयनों में प्रिय बर्ताव ; (पंत, आँसू की बालिका)

>> Pronouns

1. उत्तमपुरुष एकवचन मैं

जिन ढूंढा तिन पाइयाँ, गहरे पानी पैठि।
हौं बौरी बूड़न डरी, रही किनारे बैठि।। (कबीर, सरस काव्य संग्रह)

तूँ तूँ करता तूँ भया, मुझ में रही न हूँ।
वारी तेरे नाउ परि, जित देखौं तित तूँ।। (कबीर, कबीर-मीमांसा)

ऐसो जु हौं जानतो कि जैहै तू विषै के संग,
एरे मन ! मेरे, हाथ-पाएँ तेरे तोरतो ; (देव, देव-सुधा)

प्रियतम, तू मेरी हाला है, मैं तेरा प्यासा प्याला (बच्चन, मधुशाला)

2. मध्यमपुरुष एकवचन तुम

बालम आउ हमारै गेह रे।
तुम्ह बिन दुखिया देह रे।। (कबीर, कबीर-मीमांसा)

तूँ तूँ करता तूँ भया, मुझ में रही न हूँ।
वारी तेरे नाउ परि, जित देखौं तित तूँ।। (कबीर, कबीर-मीमांसा)

ऐसो जु हौं जानतो कि जैहै तू विषै के संग,
एरे मन ! मेरे, हाथ-पाएँ तेरे तोरतो ; (देव, देव-सुधा)

जहाँ कहीं मिल बैठे हम-तुम वहीं गई हो मधुशाला। (बच्चन, मधुशाला)

3. अन्यपुरुष एकवचन वह

सूरा सोइ सराहिए, लड़ै धनी के हेत।
पुरजा पुरजा होइ रहै, तऊ न छाँड़ै खेत।। (कबीर, सरस काव्य संग्रह)

‘देव’ न देखति हौं दुति दूसरी, देखें हैं जा दिन ते ब्रज-भूप में,
पूरि रही री वही धुन कानन, आनन आन न ओप अनूप मैं ; (देव, देव-सुधा)



>> Morphological Development
We will look at changes in verb-endings and cases (nouns and pronouns)

>> Cases - Pronouns

1. उत्तमपुरुष एकवचन मैं

ऐसो जु हौं जानतो कि जैहै तू विषै के संग,
एरे मन ! मेरे, हाथ-पाएँ तेरे तोरतो ; (देव, देव-सुधा)

2. मध्यमपुरुष एकवचन तुम

ज्यों तिल माँहैं तेल है, ज्यों चकमक में आगि।
तेरा साईं तुज्झ में, जागि सकै तो जागि।। (कबीर)

हरि जननी मैं बालक तोरा।
काहे न अवगुन बकसहु मेरा।। (कबीर, कबीर-मीमांसा)

ऐसो जु हौं जानतो कि जैहै तू विषै के संग,
एरे मन ! मेरे, हाथ-पाएँ तेरे तोरतो ; (देव, देव-सुधा)

तूने ही पहले बहु दर्शिनि, गाया जागृति का गाना (पंत, प्रथम रश्मि)

3. अन्यपुरुष एकवचन वह

जो तोकूँ काँटा बुवै, ताहि बोइ तू फूल।
तोहि फूल-के-फूल हैं, वाको हैं तिरसूल।। (कबीर, सरस काव्य संग्रह)

जिन ढूंढा तिन पाइयाँ, गहरे पानी पैठि।
हौं बौरी बूड़न डरी, रही किनारे बैठि।। (कबीर, सरस काव्य संग्रह)

>> Verb Endings

1. मुस्कुराना

परम बिनीत सकुचि मुसुकाई।
बोले गुर अनुसासन पाई।। (तुलसीदास, बालकाण्ड)

चूम नवल कलियों का मृदु मुख,
सिखा रहे थे मुस्काना ! (पंत, प्रथम रश्मि)
2. जाना

मात ह्वै आपु जनी जगमात कियो पति तात सुतासुत जायो (देव, देव-सुधा)

शून्य विश्व के उर में केवल साँसों का आना-जाना ! (पंत, प्रथम रश्मि)

3. उल्लासित होना

राम अनुज मन की गति जानी।
भगत बछलता हियँ हुलसानी।। (तुलसीदास, बालकाण्ड)

साँवरे अंग लसै पट पीत, हिये हुलसै बनमाल सुहाई; (देव, देव-सुधा)

4. जानना

कथा अलौकिक सुनहिं जे ग्यानी।
नहिं आचरजु करहिं अस जानी।। (तुलसीदास, बालकाण्ड)

कातिक पून्यो कि राति ससी दिसि पूरब अंबर मैं जिय जान्यो (देव, देव-सुधा)


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Historical development of hindi
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Historical development of hindi - 23rd June 2010, 08:44 AM

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF HINDI


PROCESS OF DEVELOPMENT OF HINDI: The first epic of Hindi was written by a Jain poet Swayambhu (स्वयंभू) in south India sometime around 960 AD [4]. It was called Paum Chariyu (पउम चरिउ) or Padam Charit (पदम चरित). It had five parts – Vidyadhar Kaand (विद्याधर कांड), Aujjha Kaand (अउज्झा कांड), Sundar Kaand (सुंदर कांड), Yudh Kaand (युद्ध कांड) and Uttar Kaand (उत्तर कांड). This style was later adopted into Ramacharitmanas (रामचरितमानस). Hindi literature over the time span of 1000-2000 A.D can be divided into four distinct periods depending upon: 1. the huge no. of creations of a particular kind, 2. popularity of creations of a particular kind [5]. They are:

1. Adikaal or Veergathakaal (आदिकाल या वीरगाथाकाल): 1050-1375
2. Poorva-Madhyakaal or Bhaktikaal (पूर्वमध्यकाल या भक्तिकाल): 1375-1700
3. Uttar-Madhyakaal or Ritikaal (उत्तरमध्यकाल या रीतिकाल): 1700-1900
4. Adhunikkaal or Gadyakaal (आधुनिककाल या गद्यकाल): 1900-2000

Adikaal: This is the Veergathakal. Contrary to popular belief that Prithivirajraso written by Chandvardai (चन्दवरदाई रचित पृथ्वीराजरासो) is the first epic of this kind, it was Sandeshrasak (संदेशरासक) [6] written by Abdulrehman (अब्दुलरहमान) from Multan. This was compiled from different sources by Muni Janavijayji (मुनि जनविजयजी). Four languages were into use- Sanskrit, Prakrit, Apabhransha, Deshbhasha (देशभाषा). Apbhransha was used by Buddhist monks. Deshbhasha was used by the poets in the courts of kings. It was because of the constant attacks of Muslims and retaliation by the Rajputs that the trend to write texts describing the valour of kings started. The famous epics of this time were: Beesaldevraso (बीसलदेवरासो), Prithvirajraso (पृथ्वीराजरासो), Khumanraso (खुमानरासो) and others. Khusro (खुसरो) and Vidyapati (विद्यापति) were two great writers of this period.

Poorva Madhyakaal: This period is also known as Bhaktikaal. It came about primarily because of the Muslim dominance over Hindus. This led Hindus to run towards God for help and also make attempts to save their religion from coming to an end. It has two branches:

1. Nirgundhara (निर्गुणधारा) – We again have two sets of writers here:
i. Gyanaashrayi (ज्ञानाश्रयी) – Kabir (कबीर), Ravidas (रविदास), Dharmadas (धर्मदास)
i i. Prem-margi or Sufi (प्रेममार्गी या सूफी) – Malik mohammad jayasi (मलिक मोहम्मद जायसी), Kutban (कुतबन), Manjjhan (मंझन)

2. Sagundhara (सगुणधारा) – We have two distinct sects here:
i. Rambhakti (रामभक्ति) – Ramanand (रामानंद), Senapati (सेनापति)
i i. Krishnabhakti (कृष्णभक्ति) – Vallabhacharya (वल्लभाचार्य), Soordas (सूरदास), Swami Haridas (स्वामि हरिदास), Raskhaan (रसखान)

Uttar Madhyakaal: This period is termed as Ritikaal. This period was known for Rasa (रस), Riti (रीति) or Alankar (अलंकार) in the writings. The first steps in this direction were taken by

____

An excerpt from Bhashayogavaashisht is as follows:
भल्ला हुआ जु मारिआ, बहिण महारा कंतु।
लज्जेजं तु वयंसिअऊ, जेहि भग्गा घर अंतु।।

An excerpt from Priya Pravas is as follows:
रूपोद्यान प्रफुल्ल प्राय कलिका राकेन्दु बिम्बानना
तन्वंगी कलहासिनी सुरसिका क्रीड़ा कलापुत्तली।

____

Keshavdasji (केशवदासजी). About 50 years later it was again restarted by Chintamani Tripathi (चिन्तामणि त्रिपाठी).
This period has seen poets from among the following genres:
1. Ritibaddh (रीतिबद्ध) – These poets used the prevalent styles of writing. They were poets of the courts - Devdatt or Dev (देवदत्त या देव), Keshavdas (केशवदास)
2. Ritimukt (रीतिमुक्त) – They did not consider any styles important. They were the poets of the people - Ghananand (घनानंद), Padmakar (पद्माकर)
3. Ritisiddh (रीतिसिद्ध) – They did not use the styles directly but developed their independent styles like Bihari (बिहारी)

Adhunikkaal: This period saw the beginning of prose for the first time in Hindi literature. This is a very recent period and has seen the emergence of a lot of Hindi writers and writing styles. This period has gone through the following changes as far as the writing style and thematic content is concerned:

1. Bharatendu Yuga (भारतेन्दु युग) – They used Braj bhasha in their verses and Khadi Boli in prose. This was the first time that prose was written. The oldest creation in Khadi Boli in prose form was ‘Bhashayogavaashisht’ (भाषायोगवाशिष्ट) by Ramprasad Niranjani (रामप्रसाद निरंजनी) in 1798. The seeds of Khadi Boli can be seen in the 10th century epic Hemachandrashabdanushasanam (हेमचन्द्रशब्दानुशासनम्). Bharatendu Harishchandra (भारतेन्दु हरिश्चन्द्र), Premghan (प्रेमघन), Balmukund Gupt (बालमुकुन्द गुप्त) are the famous poets of this period.

2. Dwivedi Yuga (द्विवेदी युग) – This was the first time that Khadi Boli was used in verse form. They also used Sanskrit chhands (छंद). Priya Pravas (प्रिय प्रवास) was the first poem of Khadi Boli written by Hariaudh (हरिऔध). Pt. Mahavirprasad Dwivedi (पं. महावीरप्रसाद द्विवेदी), Ayodhyasingh Upadhyay Hariaudh (अयोध्यासिंह उपाध्याय ‘हरिऔध’), Maithilisharan Gupt (मैथिलीशरण गुप्त) are some poets of the period.

3. Chhayavaad (छायावाद) – It was about imagination, love for beauty, affection for humanity and nature. Jayshankar Prasad (जयशंकर प्रसाद), Sumitranandan Pant

____
An excerpt from Bhashayogavaashisht is as follows:
भल्ला हुआ जु मारिआ, बहिण महारा कंतु।
लज्जेजं तु वयंसिअऊ, जेहि भग्गा घर अंतु।।

An excerpt from Priya Pravas is as follows:
रूपोद्यान प्रफुल्ल प्राय कलिका राकेन्दु बिम्बानना
तन्वंगी कलहासिनी सुरसिका क्रीड़ा कलापुत्तली।
____


(सुमित्रानंदन पंत), Suryakant Tripathi ‘Nirala’ (सूर्यकांत त्रिपाठी ‘निराला’), Mahadevi Verma (महादेवी वर्मा) are the exponents of this style.

4. Pragativaad (प्रगतिवाद) – It was about love for man, factual thinking, love for the nation and for the poor and downtrodden. Ramdharisingh Dinkar (रामधारीसिंह दिनकर), Balkrishna Sharma ‘Naveen’ (बालकृष्ण शर्मा ‘नवीन’), Shivmangal Singh Suman (शिवमंगल सिंह ‘सुमन’) are a few poets of the period.

5. Swachhandatavaad or Halavaad (स्वच्छन्दतावाद या हालावाद) – Their style was full of enjoyment. The most famous exponent of this style id Dr. Harivanshrai Bachchan (हरिवंशराय बच्चन).

6. Prayogvaad (प्रयोगवाद) – They developed new styles and looked for the human aspect in nature and inanimate objects. Heeranand Sachhidanand Vatsyayan Agyeya (हीरानन्द सच्चिदानन्द वात्स्यायन अज्ञेय), Nagarjun (नागार्जुन), Kedarnath Singh (केदारनाथ सिंह), Jagdish Gupt (जगदीश गुप्त) are some of poets of the recent times and of this genre.






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