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About 'Taktee' (syllable) in Ghazal writing
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About 'Taktee' (syllable) in Ghazal writing - 17th January 2014, 12:59 PM

Doston,
Zidd saahab ne hamein baheer/beher ke baare me bahot hi achchhi samajh dee hai.

Magar beher ko aap agar samajhnaa chaahte hain to aapko thodi bahot taktee kee samajh hona zaroori hai.

Sabse pehle main aapko itna bataa doon ke hamein ghazal likhte waqt apne aapko takteeon me ulzaanaa nahi hai, balkee un takteeon ko apne sher me bithaanaa hai.

To ham yahaan is samajh ko aasaan banaate hain. Taktee kya hai?

To ghazal me ashaar (sing. sher) hote hain, ye hamein pataa hai. Ab har ek sher men do misre hone zaroori hai, ye bhee hamein pataa hai. Beher (meter) sher ka wazn hai. Har ek beher arkaan se bantee hain. arkaan (sing. rukn) jinhe hum beher ke pillars keh sakte hain ya phir unhe hum feet bhee keh sakte hain. Simple understanding ke liye ek behr letaa hoon.
2122 / 2122 / 2122 / 212
is beher me "2122" jo hai wo rukn hai. isee tarah se puree beher me 4 arkaan hai. har ek rukn me "2" ya "1" ka istemaal kiya hai, wohi taktee hai.
So "taktee" is a syllable. Ab ghazal me inka itemaal karne ke liye aapko urdu zabaani saaf rakhni hai. Wo is liye, kyun ke agar aapko syllables ka istemaal karna hai to aapko pataa hona chahiye ke aap kaunse letters ko kis tarah se syllables (taktee) me use kar sakte hain.

Aur ek cheez aapko samajhni hai wo ye ke ghazal me har ek letter ko consonant kee tarah samjhaa jaa saktaa hai (for metrical purpose), 'a' aur 'aa' ko chhod ke. kayee urdu letters aise hote hain jinhe hum taktee se baahar rakh sakte hain. Magar ye flexibility hum tab hi rakh sakte hain jab pronunciation sahee rahe. Is liye phir se dohra rahaa hoon ke aapkee urdu zabaani saaf honee zaroori hai. Ab me taktee ke alag alag tarike bataataa hoon, ke kis tarah hum iska istemaal kar sakte hain.

1. taktee (1 or 2 letters):

A. 'alif' se 'ye' tak hum sabhee letters ka istemaal kar sakte hain. magar hamzah (ء), h [do chashmee he] (ﮩ), n (if nasalized), z, y (ی) jaise letters ko taktee me include nahi karenge. kyun ke ye letters invisible hai.

Examples:
kahnaa (yahaan, 'h' invisible hai)
ha.nsee ('n' is nasalized here)

B. ho sake to har ek taktee ko consonant se shuroo kijiye. Par ye mandatory nahi hai.

C. iske aadhaar par hum ab kuch taktee banaate hain, example ke taur par:
k + b (consonant + consonant) = kab (2)
k + aa (consonant + vowel) = kaa (2)
k (alone) = ka (1) [as in kabhee]

2. taktee (3 letters):
kaee takteeyan 3 letters se bantee hain. unko kabhee 2 syllables me ya phir 1 hi syllable me bithaayaa jaa saktaa hai. Ye bahot hi rare hai aur aisee takteeyon ke pronunciations bhee thode tough hote hain.
Examples: qism (qi + s + m), mulk (mu + l + k), waqt (w + q + t)
yahaan, waqt ko hum (21) ya (2) kee taktee me bithaa sakte hain, jaise zaroorat ho.

3. badee aur chhotee taktee:
Ye samajhne ke liye itna jaannaa zarooree hai ke badi taktee 2 letters ko jod ke banaaee jaatee hai aur chhotee taktee me sirf 1 letter hota hai. Magar, use aasaan tarike se samajhne ke liye main aapse ye kahoonga ke bolte waqt aapko jis taktee ko khinchnaa pade wo hi badi taktee (long syllable) hai aur jo bina khinche bol sakte hain use chhotee taktee (short syllable) kehte hain. Kaee takteeyan aisee bhee hotee hai jinhe hum bolte waqt khinch bhee sakte hain aur bolte hi chhod dena chaahe to vaise bhee kar sakte hain. Vaisee takteeyon ko hum flexibly use kar sakte hain.

4. Flexible syllables:
Ab ye padhte aapka kaam aasaan ho jaayega.
Main niche kuchh words list kartaa hoon jinhe aap 1 ya 2 kee taktee me rakh sakte hain:
bhii
to, tuu
thaa, the, thii, thii;N
jo
do
saa, se, sii
se
so
kaa, ke, kii
ko
me;N, mai;N
ne
vuh, yih
ho
huu;N, ho;N
hii
hai, hai;N
yuu;N

kaee aur bhee aise words hain jinhe long syllables me istemaal kiya jaataa hai, par once in a while unhe short syllable me use kar sakte hain (puranee kaee ghazalon me shaayaron ne unhe chhotee taktee me istemaal kiye bhee hain).
'vahaa.n' kee jagah pe 'vaa.n' ko aap chhotee/badee dono me bitha sakte hain.
'yahaa.n' ke badle 'yaa.n'
taa, go, yaa
'aur' apne aap me ek aisaa shabd hai jinhe aap (21) ya (2) kaise bhee use kar sakte hain.

kaee aise words hain jinhe hum alag alag tareeke se pronounce karke unkee taktee zaroorat mutabiq bitha sakte hain, jaise:
barhaman (bar + ha + man) [brahmin] (2 1 2) / barahman (ba + rah + man) (1 2 2)
khizr (2 1) / khizar (2 2)
tarha (2 2) / tarah (1 2)
gulistan (1 2 2) / gulsitaan (2 1 2)
Some more examples, jahaan aap words ko alag alag taktee me dhaal sakte hain:
barkat (2 2) / barakat (1 1 2)
zulmaat (2 2 1) / zulumaat (1 1 2 1)

Is qdar aap shabdon (words) ko agar unke pronunciation ke adhaar par taktee me sajaayenge to aap arkaan aur beher asaani se samajh sakte hain.

Ye meri ek chhotee si kaushish hai, ghazal ke ek chhotee magar ek important cheez (taktee) jispe aap kee ghazal kee dhoon based hai, ise aapke rubaroo karne kee.

Maine kaee jagah se references lee hai is article ko banaane ke liye. To iska saaraa shrey main akele nahin le sakta. To main un sabhee ka shukra guzaar hoon jinke articles ne mujhe inspire kiya hai.

Adil ka namaskaar.....



ख़ुदा परेशां तेरी बला से तेरे सितम से तेरे अधम से
अगर हसीँ होते ज़ुल्म तेरे तू भी तो कुछ शर्मसार होता



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12th April 2015, 03:54 PM

Quote:
Originally Posted by aadeil View Post
Doston,
Zidd saahab ne hamein baheer/beher ke baare me bahot hi achchhi samajh dee hai.

Magar beher ko aap agar samajhnaa chaahte hain to aapko thodi bahot taktee kee samajh hona zaroori hai.

Sabse pehle main aapko itna bataa doon ke hamein ghazal likhte waqt apne aapko takteeon me ulzaanaa nahi hai, balkee un takteeon ko apne sher me bithaanaa hai.

To ham yahaan is samajh ko aasaan banaate hain. Taktee kya hai?

To ghazal me ashaar (sing. sher) hote hain, ye hamein pataa hai. Ab har ek sher men do misre hone zaroori hai, ye bhee hamein pataa hai. Beher (meter) sher ka wazn hai. Har ek beher arkaan se bantee hain. arkaan (sing. rukn) jinhe hum beher ke pillars keh sakte hain ya phir unhe hum feet bhee keh sakte hain. Simple understanding ke liye ek behr letaa hoon.
2122 / 2122 / 2122 / 212
is beher me "2122" jo hai wo rukn hai. isee tarah se puree beher me 4 arkaan hai. har ek rukn me "2" ya "1" ka istemaal kiya hai, wohi taktee hai.
So "taktee" is a syllable. Ab ghazal me inka itemaal karne ke liye aapko urdu zabaani saaf rakhni hai. Wo is liye, kyun ke agar aapko syllables ka istemaal karna hai to aapko pataa hona chahiye ke aap kaunse letters ko kis tarah se syllables (taktee) me use kar sakte hain.

Aur ek cheez aapko samajhni hai wo ye ke ghazal me har ek letter ko consonant kee tarah samjhaa jaa saktaa hai (for metrical purpose), 'a' aur 'aa' ko chhod ke. kayee urdu letters aise hote hain jinhe hum taktee se baahar rakh sakte hain. Magar ye flexibility hum tab hi rakh sakte hain jab pronunciation sahee rahe. Is liye phir se dohra rahaa hoon ke aapkee urdu zabaani saaf honee zaroori hai. Ab me taktee ke alag alag tarike bataataa hoon, ke kis tarah hum iska istemaal kar sakte hain.

1. taktee (1 or 2 letters):

A. 'alif' se 'ye' tak hum sabhee letters ka istemaal kar sakte hain. magar hamzah (ء), h [do chashmee he] (ﮩ), n (if nasalized), z, y (ی) jaise letters ko taktee me include nahi karenge. kyun ke ye letters invisible hai.

Examples:
kahnaa (yahaan, 'h' invisible hai)
ha.nsee ('n' is nasalized here)

B. ho sake to har ek taktee ko consonant se shuroo kijiye. Par ye mandatory nahi hai.

C. iske aadhaar par hum ab kuch taktee banaate hain, example ke taur par:
k + b (consonant + consonant) = kab (2)
k + aa (consonant + vowel) = kaa (2)
k (alone) = ka (1) [as in kabhee]

2. taktee (3 letters):
kaee takteeyan 3 letters se bantee hain. unko kabhee 2 syllables me ya phir 1 hi syllable me bithaayaa jaa saktaa hai. Ye bahot hi rare hai aur aisee takteeyon ke pronunciations bhee thode tough hote hain.
Examples: qism (qi + s + m), mulk (mu + l + k), waqt (w + q + t)
yahaan, waqt ko hum (21) ya (2) kee taktee me bithaa sakte hain, jaise zaroorat ho.

3. badee aur chhotee taktee:
Ye samajhne ke liye itna jaannaa zarooree hai ke badi taktee 2 letters ko jod ke banaaee jaatee hai aur chhotee taktee me sirf 1 letter hota hai. Magar, use aasaan tarike se samajhne ke liye main aapse ye kahoonga ke bolte waqt aapko jis taktee ko khinchnaa pade wo hi badi taktee (long syllable) hai aur jo bina khinche bol sakte hain use chhotee taktee (short syllable) kehte hain. Kaee takteeyan aisee bhee hotee hai jinhe hum bolte waqt khinch bhee sakte hain aur bolte hi chhod dena chaahe to vaise bhee kar sakte hain. Vaisee takteeyon ko hum flexibly use kar sakte hain.

4. Flexible syllables:
Ab ye padhte aapka kaam aasaan ho jaayega.
Main niche kuchh words list kartaa hoon jinhe aap 1 ya 2 kee taktee me rakh sakte hain:
bhii
to, tuu
thaa, the, thii, thii;N
jo
do
saa, se, sii
se
so
kaa, ke, kii
ko
me;N, mai;N
ne
vuh, yih
ho
huu;N, ho;N
hii
hai, hai;N
yuu;N

kaee aur bhee aise words hain jinhe long syllables me istemaal kiya jaataa hai, par once in a while unhe short syllable me use kar sakte hain (puranee kaee ghazalon me shaayaron ne unhe chhotee taktee me istemaal kiye bhee hain).
'vahaa.n' kee jagah pe 'vaa.n' ko aap chhotee/badee dono me bitha sakte hain.
'yahaa.n' ke badle 'yaa.n'
taa, go, yaa
'aur' apne aap me ek aisaa shabd hai jinhe aap (21) ya (2) kaise bhee use kar sakte hain.

kaee aise words hain jinhe hum alag alag tareeke se pronounce karke unkee taktee zaroorat mutabiq bitha sakte hain, jaise:
barhaman (bar + ha + man) [brahmin] (2 1 2) / barahman (ba + rah + man) (1 2 2)
khizr (2 1) / khizar (2 2)
tarha (2 2) / tarah (1 2)
gulistan (1 2 2) / gulsitaan (2 1 2)
Some more examples, jahaan aap words ko alag alag taktee me dhaal sakte hain:
barkat (2 2) / barakat (1 1 2)
zulmaat (2 2 1) / zulumaat (1 1 2 1)

Is qdar aap shabdon (words) ko agar unke pronunciation ke adhaar par taktee me sajaayenge to aap arkaan aur beher asaani se samajh sakte hain.

Ye meri ek chhotee si kaushish hai, ghazal ke ek chhotee magar ek important cheez (taktee) jispe aap kee ghazal kee dhoon based hai, ise aapke rubaroo karne kee.

Maine kaee jagah se references lee hai is article ko banaane ke liye. To iska saaraa shrey main akele nahin le sakta. To main un sabhee ka shukra guzaar hoon jinke articles ne mujhe inspire kiya hai.

Adil ka namaskaar.....
Bahut achcha article par nazar padi aadeil jee..
kafi helpful thread hai learners ke liye..
thank you so much.....



अर्ज मेरी एे खुदा क्या सुन सकेगा तू कभी
आसमां को बस इसी इक आस में तकते रहे
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15th April 2015, 09:14 AM

Madhu saahibaa.. is beshkeemtii thread ko fir se ujaagar karne ke liye aapka tahe dil se shukriyaa......

takhtii ko samajhne se behar ko samajhnaa bilkul aasaan ho jaata hai....

ummeed kartaa hoon members is post ka zyaada se zyaada istemaal karke apne shaayrii ke hunar me izaafaa karenge....

shukriyaa

Shaad....


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