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Nazm : Defintion & Explanation
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Nazm : Defintion & Explanation - 11th January 2013, 09:08 PM

Dosto below are a few defintions and explanation I found suitably describe the form of urdupoetry which we know as Nazm. Below is just a compilation by me and I am not the author..just a conveyor of views. Hope these help us in understanding and learning this form of Urdu poetry which we call nazm.

Nazm

In a broad sense, nazm is a term used to define all kinds of Urdu shayeri which do not fall into any other category..... however, in a literary sense, a nazm is a well organized, logically evolving poem where each individual verse serves the need of the central concept or theme of the poem. Though a nazm is traditionally written in rhymed verse, there are many examples of nazms written in unrhymed verse, or even in free verse.

Example :

Roz sahil pe khade hoke yahi dekha hai
Shaam ka pighla hua surkh-sunhari rogan
Roz matiyale-se paani mein yeh ghul jaata hai
Roz sahil pe khade hoke yahi socha hai
Mein jo pighali huee rangeen shafaq ka rogan
Ponchh loo haathon pe

Aur chpuke se ik baar kabhi
Tere gulnaar se rukhsaaron pe chhap se mal doon
Shaam ka pighala hua surkh-sunhari rogan
-sunhari rogan





Nazam has the following features:
  • Objective type of poetry.
  • Used for the narration.
  • Contains philosophy and describes in short words.
  • Meaningful, significant and expressive form of poetry.
  • Redolent










Roman transliteration of an Urdu Article on Nazm. Original author is Poet Ishtiyaaq Zain.

Transilteration into Roman Urdu by Ahmad Hyderabadi.




NAZM KYA HAI?


Nazm Arbi zubaan ka lafz haye aur iskay ma'nee intezaam, ladee yaa kalaam e shair. Istelaai ma'nee hayn munaasib kalam, jacha-tula kalaam e shair jiski behr o wazn bilkul durust ho.In ma'nee ki raoshnee mayn daykha jaaye tou har wo kalaam jo munaasib ho, wazn, behr mayn ho, ayk he ladee mayn ho( ya'nee har misraa ya shair ayk doosray kay saath raabta rakhta ho) nazm kaha jaa sakta haye.guzartay waqt kay saath saath nazm mayn bhee mukhtalif tajrubaat kiyay jaatay rahay, ji mayn say kuch kaamiyaab huay tou kuch nakaam( in ki tafseel mayn jaana is waqt ghayr zaroori mahsoos hota haye) laykin in tajrubaat nay nazm ki shakl bar zaroor asar chhoda, au is ki mukhtalif iqsaam ban gayeen.


Nazm ki iqsaam:
Guzartay waqtaon kay tajrubaat say hotee jo nazm jo ham tak pahunchee ham isko teen naam day saktay hayn jo darjay zeel hayn
:

1.Paaband Nazm
2. Azaad Nazm
3. Nasri Nazm


1. Paband Nazm:
Paband Nazm mayn bahr, wazn aur qafiyay ki pabandi ki jaatee haye. Jabki radeef kay honay ya na honay say farq naheen padta. Iski shakl ghazal kay ashaar ki soorat bhi ho sakti haye aur muta'dadband ki shakl mayn bhee, agar yay ghazal ki shakl mayn hogee tou iskee pehchaan yay haye ki ismayn mazmoon ka tasalsul hoga. Ya'nee ismayn shuruu say aakhir tak ayk hee mazmoon hoga,shayr chahay jitnay bhee hoan, har shayr ka doosra misra ham-qafiya hoga, aur zahir si baat haye ki sabhee misray ayk he wazn mayn hongay. Janab Faiz ahmad Faiz ki yay nazm( given below) umda misaal haye

"Anjaam"


Hayn labray aahaon say thandee hawaayayn
Udaasi mayn doobee huee hayn ghataayayn

Muhabbat ki dunya pay shaam aa chukee haye,
Sia poash hayn zindagee kee fizaayayn

Machaltee hayn seenay mayn laakh aarzooayn
Tadapti hayn ankhaon mayn laakh iltejayayn!

Taghaaful ki aaghoash mayn so rahay hayn,
Tumharay sitam, aur mayree wafaayayn!

Magar phir bhi aye mayray masoom qaatil,
Tumhayn pyaar kartee hayn mayree duaayayn!

----Faiz Ahmed Faiz

( Is nazm mayn sirf qaafiya haye, jabki radeef nahee haye)

Aur agar nazm band ki soorat hotee to isay Musammat( Musammat ki laghvee ma'nee haye moti pirona) ka naam dayngay. Musammat ki mukhtalif iqsaam hayn jaysay ki--

Teen teen misraon ki muta'dadband nazm ko Muthlith(mussliss) kahtay hayn,
Chaar chaar misraon kay band waali nazm ko Murab'a kahtay hayn,
Paanch paanch misraon kay band waali nazm ko Mukhmis,
Chay Chay misraon kay band wali nazm ko Musaddas,
Saath saath misraon kay band waali nazm ko Musabb'ae,
Aaath aath misrain kay band waali nazm ko Muthammin( Pronounced Musammin)
Nau nau misraon kay band waali nazm ko Mutassae
aur Das das misraon kay band waali nazm ko Mughshar kahtay hayn.
( Waysay Urdu mayn cha cha misrain kay band waali nazm ya'nee Musaddas hee raaij hayn- aur Musaddis e Haali iski behtereen misaal haye) Yahaan agar inkee tafseel mayn jaayayngay tou baat buhat lambee hojaayaygee, Isliyay Azaad nazm ki taraf barhtay hayn.


2. Azaad Nazm:
Isko nazm e Me'ra bhii kehte hayn aur Ghayr-Maqfa bhi. Ismayn na tou radeef hota haye aur na he qqafiyay ki paabandee kii jaatee haye, aur kaheen ho bhee tou kisii baqaaydaa usool kay tahat nahee hota,Misray bahr o wazn mayn tou hotay hayn laykin bahr kay arkaan ki ta'daad muqarrar nahee hotee( Bahr aur iskay arkaan ki tafseel aagay chal kay aayaygee) ya'nee kisee misray kay arkaan pooray hoan, kisii mayn zyaadaa,kisee mayn kam, hatta ki sirf ayk rukn ka bhee misra ho sakta haye, jabkay zyaada say zyaadaa bhee, azaad nazm kee do mukhtalif misaalayn daykhiyay.


Misaal number 1: Is nazm mayn ba'z misraon mayn bahr mayn radd o badal kii gayee haye,ya'nee tamaam misray ayk hee wazn mayn nahee hayn:


" Tanhaayee"

Phir koee aaya dil e zaar! Nahee koee nahee,
Raah ru hogaya, kaheen aur chala jaayaygaa,
Dhal chukee raat, bikharnay lagaa taaraon ka ghubaar,
Ladkhadaanay lagay aywaanaon may khawabaydaa charaagh,
So gayee raasta tak tak kay har ayk raahguzaar
Ajnabee khaaq nay dhundlaa diyay qadmaon kay suraagh,
Gulkar o shama'ayn, badhaa do may-o-meena-o-ayaagh
Apnay baykhwaab kawaadaon ko maqfal kar lo
Ab yahaan koee nahee, koee nahee aayaygaa!


Poet: Faiz Ahmed Faiz


Misaal number 2: Is nazm mayn tamaam misray ayk he wazn mayn hayn yan'nee bahr mayn koee radd o badal nahee kiya gayaa, bas radeef aur qaafiyaa nahee hayn ismayn.


" Guzaarish"

Gayay ho jabsay tum jaanaaN
Mayra dil nahee lagta
Ki saare chaandnee raatayn
tumhaaray bin yun guzri hayn
Khizan mayn jaysay ik bulbul
Bina gul kay tadaptee haye
Ki ik parwaana jalnay ki
Tamanna layakay jeeta haye
Chalay aao kay yay bulbul
Tumhayn paakay machal jaayay
Chalay aao ke parwaana
Tumharee lau say jal jaayay!


Poet: Sarmad Khan


3. Nasri Nazm:

Nasr arbi ka lafz haye,aur iskay ma'nee hayn bikhra huaa, tittar bittar,parayshaan. Nasr is kalaam ko kahtay hayn jiskay kahnay waalay nay isay wazn mayn kahnay kay iraaday say na kahaa ho, aur mahaz ittefaaq say kalaam mayn wazn payda ho jaayay. Aajkal Nasri nazm ko bhi shayri ki ayk Sanaf ki taur par maana jaanay lagaa haye, go ki abhi abhi Urdu adab ka ayk makhsoos aur badaa halqaa isko nahee maantaa. Nasri nazm mayn na tou qaafiya hota haye , na he radeef,na he yay kisee makhsoos bahr ya wazn mayn likhee jatee haye.Goya ki nasree nazm mayn koee qaida qanoon nahee hotaa.



Nasr ki iqsaam to be continued...

Last edited by Ahmad Hyderabadi; 11th January 2013 at 09:13 PM..
   
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11th June 2014, 10:46 PM

Aadab.....Ahmad sahib ...sabse pahle to ek nek kaam Ke liye aapko hazaaro-lakho daad......buzurgo ne kahaa hai .....ilm baantne se badhta hai.....aur sahii kahaa hai...par afsos huya ki ek bhi comment nahi.....khair chhodiye.....agar is thread ko padhkar kisi ek taalib e ilm ko bhi faiz haasil huya to aapki mehnat rang laa gayi....lekin bhai ek baat Kahani hai.....article to bahut achcha hai lekin usme kuch baate'n outdated hai......I repeat outdated hai ,,,,, ghalat nahi......bold letters men apni haqeer raay zaahir jar raha hu.....kuch ghalat lage to ROK Lena....

(1) aapne paaband nazm me'n kahaa hai ki iski shakl ghazal ki soorat men bhi ho sakti hai aur band ki soorat men bhi.....ye definition ghalat nahi hai lekin ab ghazal ki soorat wali nazm ko baqaayda.....musalsal ghazal Ke taur par tasliim kar liye gayaa hai ...yaani paaband nazm wahi hai Jo band ki soorat me hai nahi to WO musalsal ghazal hai

(2)isii tarah ab nazm e me'ra ( ghair - maqfa nazm ) ko aazad nazm se juda mankar nazm ki 4th iqsaam ki shakl me'n tasliim kar
liya gayaa hai



Bhai.....kisi baat ko dil par mat Lena.....Bas mujhe lagaa ki Jo kuch aadha - adoora mujhe aata hai ....aapse saanjha kare lu.....aur haa'n aapne ye article poora kyun nahi kiya.......aapse guzaarish hai ki aap apna article jald se jald poora kare.....

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11th June 2014, 10:50 PM

ek sawaal mods se

Mujhe surf ek wajah baatiye ki ye thread sticky kyun nahi kiya gayaa??????? Agar ghazal Ke intro wali thread sticky hai to ye kyun nahi??????
   
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11th June 2014, 11:50 PM

How cum I missed this one...yeh kahaan se dhoond ker nikal liya aapne ufaq sahab...

bohat hi interesting thread hai Ahmed bhai...maafi ki talabgaar huun...meri nazar nahi padi isper isiliye koi comments nahi diye..warna itna imp thread mujhse miss hojaaye yeh mumkin nahi....

guzarish hai ke isay continue kijiye...




Zainy


PalkoN ki baand ko tod ke daaman pe aa gira
Ek aaNsu mere zabt ki tauheen kar gaya...

Nm
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12th June 2014, 07:26 AM

Quote:
Originally Posted by ufaq View Post
Aadab.....Ahmad sahib ...sabse pahle to ek nek kaam Ke liye aapko hazaaro-lakho daad......buzurgo ne kahaa hai .....ilm baantne se badhta hai.....aur sahii kahaa hai...par afsos huya ki ek bhi comment nahi.....khair chhodiye.....agar is thread ko padhkar kisi ek taalib e ilm ko bhi faiz haasil huya to aapki mehnat rang laa gayi....lekin bhai ek baat Kahani hai.....article to bahut achcha hai lekin usme kuch baate'n outdated hai......I repeat outdated hai ,,,,, ghalat nahi......bold letters men apni haqeer raay zaahir jar raha hu.....kuch ghalat lage to ROK Lena....

(1) aapne paaband nazm me'n kahaa hai ki iski shakl ghazal ki soorat men bhi ho sakti hai aur band ki soorat men bhi.....ye definition ghalat nahi hai lekin ab ghazal ki soorat wali nazm ko baqaayda.....musalsal ghazal Ke taur par tasliim kar liye gayaa hai ...yaani paaband nazm wahi hai Jo band ki soorat me hai nahi to WO musalsal ghazal hai

(2)isii tarah ab nazm e me'ra ( ghair - maqfa nazm ) ko aazad nazm se juda mankar nazm ki 4th iqsaam ki shakl me'n tasliim kar
liya gayaa hai



Bhai.....kisi baat ko dil par mat Lena.....Bas mujhe lagaa ki Jo kuch aadha - adoora mujhe aata hai ....aapse saanjha kare lu.....aur haa'n aapne ye article poora kyun nahi kiya.......aapse guzaarish hai ki aap apna article jald se jald poora kare.....

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Aadaab Ufaq Bhaee!! KhushAamdeed! KhushAamdeed!
Bhai sabse pahlay aapkay muhabbat say labrayz kalimaat wa purkhuloos jawaab ka tahay dil say shukriyaa adaa karna chahoonga!

Ufaq Bhaee... khaaksaar ab bhi shayri ki dunya mayn tif-e-maktab haye, aaur aapnay jo Nuqta uthaya haye aur uspar roashnee daali haye uskay liyay bayshumaar shukriyaa! Mayn aapsay muttafiq hoon..
Shaayad aapko yaad hoga is section "Shayri ki paath-shaala" mayn maynay iftitaahi threads mayn ayk thread banaya tha darkhwast e islaa, requesting the dissection of of one of my works.."Bataa tu bhi aakhir pshemaan kyoon haye.."
And AlhamduLillah that was frtuitful discussion.. but coming back to the point...that work .... about which...even I was not sure that whether was it a ghazal or a nazam... in the end the ulema of our site held the view it is an example of a "Musalsal Ghazal".... that will be a live example to me of the point you have raised above janaab!

Aur doosri baat bhaee... kabhie bhi is gumaan mayn nahee rahayn ki ta'leemi tazkiray wa tabsiray kay mutaalliq mujhay koee bhi baat takleefdayh hogee... balki mujhay khushee he hogee!!


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12th June 2014, 07:48 AM

Quote:
Originally Posted by zainy View Post
How cum I missed this one...yeh kahaan se dhoond ker nikal liya aapne ufaq sahab...

bohat hi interesting thread hai Ahmed bhai...maafi ki talabgaar huun...meri nazar nahi padi isper isiliye koi comments nahi diye..warna itna imp thread mujhse miss hojaaye yeh mumkin nahi....

guzarish hai ke isay continue kijiye...
AsSalamAlaikm SIs!!
Behna muaafi kis baat keee?????

Is thread ko jab continue karna shuru kiya aur research material say guzraa to sabsay pahlay mayra save kiya hua material pata nahee kahaan kho gaya.. laykin phir mujhay ayk article nazar aaya Nazm, Nasri or Azaad aur Urdu adab mayn is kay saath tajrubaon say mutaalliq...
Bayshak article kaafee taveel haye aur English mayn haye... par maynay isay jald as jald share karna zarooree samjha taa ki agar sab nahe to kuch to logaon ko iss say faiz pahonchay in the mean time i traslate it into Roman urdu InshaAllah! Please NOTE... IT IS NOT MY ARTICLE....
and also its not just a simple copy paste job... a lot of work went into recomposing it......

An article By Delhi University Professor, Muhtaram Janab Dr.Shaikh Aquil Ahmad




Experiments in form of Modern Urdu Poetry
by

Dr. Shaikh Aquil Ahmad
(Associate Professor, Department oUrdu,
Satyawati college, University of Delhi)




Here are many unresolved problems in Urdu literature and Nazm is one such genre. It is difficult for us, students of literature. to apprehend the constraints of literary luminaries that made them calla prominent and well known genre as Nazm., while the whole poetic tradition that stands apart from the prose could also be called Nazm.

Nevertheless my present article is a synthesis of the two different subjectsModern poetry and Experiments in form. There is room enough for writing two different elaborate articles on both the subjects separately.And there is a need for writing on these subjects since they are still bone of contention. First and foremost Prof.Kalimuddin Ahmad wrote a number of articles on Nazm and tried to elaborate its distinctive qualities. While elaborating Nazm, he emphasized distinctive elements, which are incidentally essential for the popular genres of prose such as novel, drama and short story. Hence no ground was gained. Several critics after Kalimuddin wrote on the subject but a comprehensive definition of Nazm could not be ascertained. Thus a discussion on Nazm as a genre has always proved as allusive as finding a black cat in a dark room.
Dr. Wazir Agha has written books and several articles on the subject of Nazm in which he has discussed on various aspects of Nazm vary conducively. Nevertheless he also touched the sensitive issue of the difference between Ghazals and Nazm very superficially saying that Ghazal is the product of the east while Nazm is the product of the west. The statement is partially correct. Though it is true that Ghazal is the product of east but to say that Nazm is a smuggled or contraband good of the west makes us pause and think .In the light of available definitions and descriptions of Nazm we find that it covers within its bounds the quartets, Masnavis, Elegies, Eulogies, Musadass and Masmmans etc. Or going a step further we can safely conclude that the whole poetic asset of Urdu which is not Ghazal could be termed as Nazm. Hence we can safely conclude that Nazm is not a product of the west and it has its roots deeply embedded in the east.



Nevertheless, the Urdu poetry written under the influence of English literature after 1857 and the one which was introduced through the conferences of Anjuman-e-Himaet-e-Islam, Lahore, had its roots in the west and is known as modern poetry. While agreeing with Wazir Aghas descriptions of cultural and economical factors
in the growth and development of Ghazal in the east and Nazm in the west, I also believe that the popular eastern traditions of Mushairas and poetic sessions are rarely found in the west. Hence the western poetry is inclined towards individualism whereas a collective cumulative social consciousness has always been predominantly present in the poetry of the east.



Drawing this line of demarcation between the east and the westI only intend to bring out the milieu of the poetry under present discourse which is very close to individualism. The modern poetry has played an important role in propagating the individual thought. This distinction of the modern poetry makes it conspicuously different from the classical poetry. That is why Nazm is defined as flowing stream of personal expression that presents before us an spectacle which is drawn from individual experience.



The modern Urdu poetry began in Urdu literature with the impact of new circumstances, new social milieu and western influences on nations collective conscience. And with the advent of modern poetry began the era of experiments in technique and form. Form is a multidimensional word.



Right from Plato to the modern times several philosophers and thinkers have expressed their views and opinions on the multi dimensionality but yet the subject has not been fully explored. The reason is perhaps that there are thousands of physical and metaphysical things in the universe which are still unexplored. The human mind strives to unravel the truth of
these numerous things. Unless the truth of these innumerable things are ascertained, no definition of form could be conclusive. And juxtaposed views about form would continue to pour in. In order to understand the form of a particular thing one has to determine both its external and internal factors. It is always easy to determine the external factors but it is difficult to explore the internal aspects since it is related with its spiritual elements. For instance the realessence of Ghazal is its Taghazul which is a definite feeling which can only be felt and can not be described in words. Similarly in Nazm apart from its external form there is an internal feeling which is an important constituent and cannot be anatomized. Taking in to consideration all the elements, external as well as internal, that contribute in the artistic formation of a Nazm for instance the matter, the words, the rhythm, the rhyme, the cultural milieu,the sentiments, the delicate expressions etc which fully harmonize themselves into one unit to become a form for a Nazm.



Some critics like Dr.Shaukat Sabzawari consider thought to be different from form. He says: The thought or the content is antithetical to form. Thus after removing thought mentally whatever we get is form. The content is not included in the form. (The new and old traditions, P-24) I donít agree with Shaukat Sabzawari and believe that thought and form are two sides of the same coin and thus cannot be distinguished. Innumerable critics have written on this subject of form but they have not been able to add anything to it. When we talk about change in form then it is taken in a limited sense that any experiment and change in meter and stanza formation is done at the level of language and its principles but it is a very difficult task to analyze it since thelanguage and its principles vary from work to work.

When a poet expresses his sentiments and thoughts in poetry then he needs a form which is usually associated with rhymes and rhythm. These accepted and prevalent rhymes and rhythm are predominantly present in the mind of the poet in which he frames his poetry. Some poets often invent new moulds and frames when they find the old forms inadequate and out of date for expressing their modern sensibility.
In order to invent new forms in poetry one has to sometimes partially modify or fully deviate from the older forms. The act of this deviation in the older forms is known as experimental in form. Due to the social upheavals the forms come and go but certain forms do not lose their identity for instance the form of Ghazal, despite being very old,has not given up its place and it is very much alive even today. The experiment of form is not completely new but they exhibit some elements of olderforms.



This is the reason why a new form appears known and familiar and thus becomes popular and then eventually it becomes a tradition which is a proof of a successful experiment.



The tradition of experiment in form is not new. Rather we find it in every phase of Urdu Literature. Even in the classical poetry written prior to 1857 we find some examples of experiments in forms. For instance we get Quartets, Elegies, Musadas etc. Besides in the times of Quli Qutub Shah a number of poems, which are only an early versions of Nazir Akbarabadis poems, are the best examples of experiments. But they are limited of course some of these forms were already found in Persian poetry. Hence these experiment had no literary value.


The real beginning of experiment in Urdu literature is seen after 1857 in the poetry which came into existence because of the socio-political cultural revolutions brought out by the reformist movement ofSir Syed , Azad and Hali under the influence of English literature and this was named modern poetry. The first experiment of this kind was carried out by a disciple of Hali named, Brij Mohan Duttatarya Kaifi. In 1887 he wrote two poems using the a b a b form of the stanza of English poetry on the subject of Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria and Congratulations on the Success.



This stanza form already existed in Urdu poetry in the form of Quartets thus it would be far from the truth for the critics to conclude that this was a new form in poetry invented by Brij Mohan Duttatarya Kaifi. Nevertheless by writing long poems in the stanza form Kaifi motivated the poets to indulge into the experiment in forms.


But he did not succeed since these two poems did not carry any weight in literature. Moreover writers and poets were not mentally prepared for any experiments. And no other poem was written and published in this form for next ten years. Therefore critics like Abdul Haleem Sharar, Prof. Abdul Qadir Sarwari, Khalilur Rahman Azmi, Dr. Saiyada Jafar and Dr. Unwan Chishti and several other critics consider Tabatabai and not Kaifi as the pioneer poet of experiments in form which is historically not correct.

The trend of writing poems in stanza form started in the later nineteenth century and continued in the early 20th century. Several such poems were published in the magazines like Makhzan and Dilgudaz. But we do find a few exemplary poems that deviated from the trend. For instance a poem of Hasrat Mohani called Mausam-e-Bahar Ke Akhri Phool(The last flower of spring) . The last stanza of this poem is in stanza form while the rest of the poem follows the scheme of the second line rhyming with the fourth line.



The name of Badrul Zaman, a poet from Calcutta, should also be mentioned, who wrote Aseer-e-Ghurbat(The captive of poverty) and Barrel of Sir John More, which were published in Mukhzen and Dil Gudaz. In the first two decades of the 20th century, many other poets used this form and their poems were published in the foresaid magazines. The prominent among them were Nadir Kakaurvi,Durga Sahai Sarwar, Auj Gayawi, Azeez Luckhnawi ,Ghulam Mohammad Toor, QasrBhopali, Arshad Thanvi, Laobali Amrohvi and Tirlok Chand.

The translations of English poetry into Urdu not only introduced the stanza form in Urdu but also motivated the Urdu writers to study English literature extensively which introduced blank verse in Urdu. Blank verse poetry had no rhyme scheme. Blank verse in Urdu was introduced by Azad and Ismail Meruthi. Mohammad Husain Azad wrote two poems Jughrafiaki paheli(Enigma of geography) and Jazba-e- Doori(Thought of separation)
and Ismail Merithi wrote Chidia Ke Bachche(The young ones of a bird) and Taron Bhari Rat(A night full of stars) which had no rhyme scheme. Besides these poems Akbar Alahabadi also wrotetwo poems in blank verse but they did not have any influence on the tradition of Nazm since they did not fully reflect the creative experiments.



A formal beginning of blank verse could be traced in the early 20thcentury in the efforts of Abdul Haleem Sharar. He started a movement to promote it and to transform it into an important tradition. Not only that he wrote articles elucidating the nuances of blank verse but also wrote lyrical plays in this form and motivated others to do so. And this is also true that several other poets followed the suit.


These poems may not have any literary value, however, he played an important role in promoting and propagating blank verse. Abdul Haleem Sharar had named his lyrical play in blank verse as Nazm Ki Ek Nai Qisam(A new form of poetry). The first scene of this play along with his introductory note was published in June 900 in Dilgudaz. The second and third scenes were published in September and December the same year. While fourth, fifth and the sixth scenes were published respectively in January, February and May 1901. Sharar introduced his first scene as follows:
Hence we direct our attention and write a proper play with the same English sublimity. If appreciated by the nation and the literary people, I will compose the rest of the scenes else discontinue the effort after two or three scenes. Presently my endeavor is to present the blank verse in its full glory so that writers appreciating it are motivated into writing poems in the same vein and in a muchbetter way. (Dilgudaz-June 1900,Pg.1)

The movement started by Sharar to implant the blank verse in Urdu poetry gave rise to a controversy. One group of poets and writers were for the movement started by Sharar and supported him whereas another group opposed it and wrote articles against the use of blank verse form. They had refused to accept blank verse as poetry at all since in their opinion it was closer to prose writing. Prominent names in this group were Nazm Tabatabai, Ahsan Marehravi andNajmul Ghani etc. Prominent names from the group of poets and writers who supported blank verse are Makhdoom Alam Asar Marehravi Syed Aulad Husain Shadan Balgerami and Dilgeer Akbarabadi etc. Despitethe best efforts put up by Sharar blank verse could not attain the desired popularity and gradually the movement cooled down. After a gap of tento twelve years Allah Bus Baqi Hawas, a Nazm by Mehmood Azam Fehmi Tarmazi and Sham-e-Chaman(The evening of garden) by Makhmoor AkbarAbadi were published in Zamana and Nigar in the year 1922.After Abdul Haleem Sharar ,Maulana Tajwar Najibabadi took up the challenge of propagating blank verse. As a matter of fact when Maulana was the editor of Makhzan magazine then he had proposed some reformatory measures regarding Urdu poetry and prose out of which two weredirectly related to the extension of poetic form. The first was topromote blank verse in Urdu poetry and the second was to adopt Hindi meters inUrdu poetry.

In order to make his measures popular, he not only wrote articles but also a few poems in blank verse and motivated a few others to write such poems but he did not get much of a success. The poetry of this kind was written from January 1923 to January 1924and after that no poem was written in this form for two and a half years. Mashriq Ka Pyam-e-Akhwat Maghrib Ke Nam(The message of brotherhood, from east to the west), a poem by Maulana, was published in the magazine Humayun in 1923.

Beside this Pyam-e- Subh,(The message ofmorning)by Nazir Ludhyanavi, Koh-e- Everest Se Khitab(Addressing the Mount Everest) by Vasta Prasad Fida , Sarnath by Syed Hasan, Aabshar(Water fall)by Syed Mohammad Saqib Kanpuri and Waqt Ki Dibya(The lamp of time) by Hamidullah Afsar were published in Humayun from January 1923 to January 1924. Then again in June 1927 a poem by Ishtiyaq Husain Quraishi, Dars-e-Fitrat(The lessons from nature) was published which could really be called an experiment in blank verse. Though the number of syllables are not same in each line, yet the music and the flow is not wanting. One stanza of the poem is as follows:

Darya Kinarey Sham Ko
Ek Din Guzar Mera Hua
Dekha Wahan Aab-e-Rawan
Aur Sabza-e-Ghaltida joo
Phaila Hua Tha Har Taraf
Khwahish Hui Dil Mein
Ke Bas Thehro Yahin
Karta Rahun Nazara-e-S
ehra-e-Rashk-e-Bostan

Dr. Khaleelur Rehman Azmi has called this poem a free verse but this is not correct because the distinctive property of the harmony of a free verse is that the variation in the meters in the lines are not done under any proper scheme. At the sametime Abdul Rehman Bijnauri translated certain portions of Taigores Geetanjali in blank verse which was published in April 1925 in Urdu a magazine.


Later on the same was published in Nairang-e-Kheyal in 1928 with the title Dai-e-Ajal(The call of death). Azmatullah Khan also experimented in the form of blank verse. He had translated a song which is included in the magazine Sureley Bol titled as Be Radeef-O-Qafia(Without rhyme and meter). This poem has got no literary value but because of experiment it has got a historical importance. M. Husain Latifi also composed two poems
in blank verse. Of which the first one Lane wood Mein Khizan(Autumn in lane wood) was published in Mutala in Aug.1932. and the second poem Mehtab-e-Zamistan( The moon of winter) was publish in April,1933 in the magazine Qalamkar.



This second innings of blank verse ended in 1935 without any addition to this genre since it could not be elevated. Nevertheless the poetry of this phase was more mature, more fluent and more cheerful than the earlier one. Technically also we notice a difference between the poetry of the two phases.


The lines in the poems of this phase are mostly arranged in the form of Masnavi. Resonance of artistic formulations is felt in the poems written after 1935. Since then the poets had not cultivated this artistic consciousness. Fluency and a kind of musical effect are present in these poems. The next phase after the second phase is significant in the respect that along with blank verse, verse libre was also introduced in Urdu poetry and it progressed in leaps and bounds. Blank verse began in this phase with Yusuf Zafar ,Mahkmoor Jalandhri , Vishwa Mitr Adil and other youngpoets. Besides these poets the poets writing verse libre also wrote blank verse.Prominent among them are Tasadduq Husain Khalid and Miraji. Rashid did not compose any poem in blank verse but we do find glimpses of blank verse in some of his poems. The poems in blankverse written after 1935 were continuouslyprogressing in leaps and bounds.


In this phase some poems of semi blank verse along with blank verse were written in which resonance of the regular poem is felt. We find an amalgamation of blank verse and verse libre in Rah Dekhi Nahi(Un known direction) by Tasadduq Husain and Clerk Ka Naghma-e-Mohabbat(Love song of a clerck) by Miraji while in Apni Kahani(My story) by Qayum Nazar we find the trend of verse libre in blank verse. Subhea-e-Azal(the morning of the dooms day) by tasadduqHusain Khalid exhibits the trend of Mustazad in blank verse.



Faiz Ahmad Faiz some times does not follow the restrictions of regular poems and makes certain deviations, for instance he introduces one or two lines in blank verse which creates a semblance of blank verse; though his poems are mostly regular poems. Many changes were effected in classical elements of poetry at different levels under the influence of new socio-cultural -political and western principles.



That is why Mohammad Husain Aazad, favored not only an extension of the subject addition and alteration of form .He took a step forward in this direction and divided his Masnavis in stanzas which did not have the same number of lines. For instance his well known Masnavi Shab-e-Qadar(The sacred night) has at least four lines in one stanza and at the most sixteen.



Not only that he divides the stanzas on the basis of thought pattern. There is one more significant point that he begins every poem with some couplets of prelude then only he comes to the main theme which gives his poem a shade of eulogy.
Similarly Maulana Hali composed his poem Monajat-e-Bewa(The wailing of a widow) on the meter used in Hindi. Akbar Alahabadi was a fundamentalist but we find a consciousness of extension of tradition in his poetry. Do Titliyan(Two butter flies) is composed in the form of Masnavi and Quartets.



This is a unique experiment. Shauq Qidwais poem Aalam-e-Kheyal(The world of imagination) is an example of distinguished experiment in Masnavi. This was divided in four parts and each part is composed with different meters.



Just like Aazad, Iqbal too divided his Saqi Nama into seven parts and these seven parts constitute seven thoughts. This too is a kind of experiment. Many an experiment has been done in the form of Elegy for instance Hali wrote a poem called Marsia-e-Ghalib(An Elegy on Ghalib) dividing it into stanzas. First line of every stanza begins like a Matla ( the first couplet of a ghazal) and the other couplets are in the form of a Ghazal and the last and concluding couplet of every stanza is different from other couplets.The initial stanza isin the likeness of prologue of an eulogy. Iqbal too wrote Marsia-e-Dagh(An Elegy of Dagh) in the meter of a Masnavi. This elegy is also divided into several stanzas .The number of couplets differ in every stanza and the thought pattern too changes.



Hafiz Julandheri too composed an elegy titled Shahsawar-e-Karbala(The warrior of Karbala) whose form is entirely new. This is divided into stanzas and every stanza is conspicuous for its meter and rhyme. Nazm Tabatabai made a tremendous alteration in the form of eulogy. He wrote several poems which are written on the linesof eulogy and belong to the same genre but these eulogies are not written in the conventional form of eulogy.


The rhyme scheme of the first stanza of the poems on birthdays and coronation is a a a a and the second stanza is b b b a and the third stanza is c c c a. Apart from the first stanza three lines of all other stanzas have a common rhyme and the fourth line rhymes with the first stanza.



Azmatullah Khan introduced the form of Hindi into Urdu poetry and advocated for its acceptance. He propagated the Matra Chhand of Hindi in place of meters of Quartets. Apart from this he wanted to transform the Quartet into a continuous chain of a unitary article. According to him after adopting Matra Chhand the horizon of rhyme of a Quartet could be widened from twenty four to ten thousand nine hundred forty six.. Azmatullah Khanprofusely made use of Hindi rhyme scheme in his poems and some times used the amalgamation of the two.



Under the influence of Hindi Geets(Song) and Geet like Nazm became a common phenomenon in Urdu which is again an example of a successful experiment in form. With respect to form, geet(Song)and Geet- like Nazm are two different things. Geet is a lyrical Nazm which has a refrain after every stanza. This refrain may or may not have the same number of syllables as that of the lines in the stanza.The last line of the stanza and refrain are rhymed. The arrangement of rhyme scheme in the stanzas may differ. The Geets(Song) that do not have this refrain are called Geet- like nazam. Among those who experimented in this field,the prominent names are those of Azmat Allah Khan HafeezJulundhari. They wrote a number of Geet- like Nazm.
For example here is an excerpt from a Geet- like Nazam of Azmat Allah Khan:



Ek To Shabab Aur Phir Us
Ka Nashha Naya Naya.
Husn Prast Ankh Thi Man Mera Pak Saf Tha .
Daam Mein Yan Na Aai
ye Dil Na Yahaan Lagaiye
Here is a Geet- like Naza
m by Hafeez Jalundhari,
Mere Dil Ka Dagh
Pyari Mere Dil Ka Dagh
Main Hoon Dil Ke
Bagh Ka Mali
Laya Hoon P
hoolon Ki Dali
Nazuk Nazuk Phool Hain Ja
ise Ujle Ujle Dagh
Aisa Hi Be Dagh Hai Pyari Mere Dil Ka Dagh
Pyari Mere Dil Ka Dagh

The refrain is not there in these Geet- like Nazam but all other traits of Geet are present in them. The writers and poets of Urdu, under the influence of western literary movements and thoughts, adopted the new forms of western languages but with certain modifications. For example we find Urdu poetry experimenting with the forms like sonnet, verse libre, short lyric and Troile etc.

Sonnet is a form of lyrical poetry where there are only fourteen lines and whichfollows a fixed rhyme scheme. The number of stanzas are different in sonnets. There is no fixed meter for sonnet in Urdu like English sonnets.


The poets in Urdu language used different meters for sonnets. Aziz Tamannai, has composed maximum number of sonnets and he does not concede to the principle of one meter. In Barg- e-Naukhez(The young buds) he uses a number of meters for sonnets. We get a few examples of successful experiments in the sonnets of Akhtar Sherani, N. M. Rashid, Salam Machli Shehri, Ahmad Nadeem Qasmi and Aziz Tamannai. But most of the sonnets are not successful. For example Hasrat Mohani published a poem Barbat-e-Salma in May1910 where we find the influence of sonnet and stanza form. This could very well be called a sonnet like Nazm. As per the recent research by Dr.Md.Mahfuzul Hasan the first sonnet in Urdu waswritten by Dr. Azimuddin Ahmad Azim Azimabadi.


However it is said that the first sonnet in Urdu was written by Akhtar Juna Garhi which was titled Shehr-e-Khamoshan(The city silence) which was published in1914. Here is one stanza from that sonnet:

Kya Hi Ye ShehreKhamoshan Dil Shikan Nazara Hai.
Kitni Ibratkhez Hai Iski
Ye Purgham Khamoshi
Ek Hasrat si Baras
ti Hai Dam-e-Nazaragi
Dekh Ker Jisko Dil-e-Muzt
ar Bhi Para Para Hai

The rhyme scheme of this sonnet is a b b a. After Akhter JunaGarh, the prominent poets who experimented in sonnet form, are N. M. Rashid, Akhtar Shirani, Shaiq Warsi Barailavi etc. Some of them published their collected works in sonnets. Besides these poets, Ahmad Nadeem Qasmi , Akhtar Hoshyarpuri , Tufail Hoshyarpuri, Tabish Siddiqui , Manoher Lal Hadi and Salam Machhli Shehri etcexperimented in this form.



After Sonnet, the form which being is popularly used for experiments is verse libre or free verse which comes from English. There is no standard form of free verse. It is mostly guided and formulated by the thoughts and the feelings. The unit in a free verse is not a line or a syllable but an atrophy which is the confluence of all the lines.

Since the rhythm in free verse depends on the dialectical stresses therefore lines are of variable sizes a nd are composed of different meters. And sometimes it is altogether a prosaic formation. Thus free verse is mid way between prose and poetry where the stress is on the freedom from meter and rhyme scheme though the rhyme scheme is not prohibited. Because of the poetic sensibility and phonetic restraints of the language,the Urdu poets do not enjoy unlimited freedom. Though the lines in Urdu free verse follow the ups and down of thoughts and feelings yet they are obliged to follow a particular meter.

The lines are not constituted of a fixed number of syllables. They are rather constrained by the completion of one constituent of a thought or emotion. The numberof syllables in a line are determined by the flow of thought and feeling. Free verse in Urdu formally began after the First World War.

The unanimous opinion is that Tasadduq Husain Khalid wrote the first free verse in Urdu. Though the lyrical play of Abdul Haleem Sharar exhibit some early traits of free verse but these plays are covered under the category of blank verse. Sharar himself called them blank verse. But in pieces the traitsof free verse is predominantly present. We often find some extracts which after being formulated would give rise to free verse. Azmatullah Khan translated Shellys Cloud which is closer to the form of free verse in technique and form. Under the influence of the flow thought and feeling the lines are of varied size.


Let us look at the lines:
Han Han Main Hoon Ladla Beta
Sunder Pirthi Aur Pani Ka
Amber Ne Hai God Mein Pala
Main Guzra Hoon Ma
samon Mein Se, Sahil
Ke Aur Samander Ke
Roop Badalta par Nahi Marta

Around 1925,Tasadduq Husain began experimenting with free verse in Urdu and he discovered news avenues from the prevalent poetic trends. After him N.M.Rashid , Mirnji, Mohammad Deen Taseer, Hafeez Hoshiyarpuri, Majeed Amjad, Yusuf Zafar, Ali Jawed Zaidi etc directed their attention towards free verse. N.M. Rashid, Miraji made some outstanding contribution to endow free verse a place of prominence. N. M. Rashid published his first free verse whose title was Jurrat-e-Parwaz(The daring flight) which attracted the attention of all the writers and poets of that age.



But according to some critics the first free verse of Rashid was "Ittafaqat(The probablities) which was published in 1935 and had taken the writers and poets by surprise. Let us examine a few lines from this poem:



Aaj Is Saet-e-Dazdeeda-o-Nayab Mein Bhi
Jism Hai Khab Se Lazz
atkash-e-Khamyaza Tera
Tere Mizghan Ke Tale Ni
nd Ki Shabnam Ka Nazool
Jis Se Dhal Jane Ko Hai Ghaza Tera
Zindagi Tere Liye Ras Bh
are Khabon Ka Hajoom
Zindagi Mere Liye Kawish-e-Bedari Hai
Ittafaqaat Ko Dekh
Is Zamistan Ki Haseen Raat Ko Dekh


The art and beauty of the form of free verse is predominantly present in this poem. The poem Be-wafai(Infidelity) by Hafeez Hoshyarpuri was published in 1934.This was a poetic translation of Byrons poem.



Let us examine a few lines from the poem:
Shikasta Dil
Khaamosh Aankhon Mein Aansun
Huwe Is Tarah Barson Ke Liye Hum
Juda
Kumla Gaye They
Fart-e-Gham Se
Tere Gul Ha-e-Aariz
Lams Jinka
Rawan Karta Tha Her Afsurdagi
Rag-o-Pai Mein
Khuli Ab Ye Haqeeqat
Gham-e-Anjam Ke Ek Aina Tha
Judai Ka Woh Lamha

After the transformation of free verse in Urdu, Troile was introduced. Troile is a distinguished form in French poetry which has eight lines. There are only two rhymes. The first line is used as refrain in the fourth and seventh place and second line is repeated in the end as eighth line. The rhyme scheme is a b a a a b a b. A special care is taken about the refrain that they should appear meaningful in the context and should not appear insignificant. The success of the art of troile depends on the unity of thought and the relevance and harmony in its lines.
Aata Mohammad Khan Shola is considered to be the pioneer of Troile in Urdu poetry. He wrote his poem Zindagi(The life)in this form, which was published in the magazine Shair in November 1966.This poem was published along with an introductory note in which he declared himself to be the first poet of Troile in Urdu .

Here is the poem:
Aage Sochen to Mah- o-Meher Ki Umron Se Taweel
Pichhen Dekhen To Ho Ek
Pal Ka Tamasha Jaise
Hai Khadi Beech Mein Ek
Umre Gurezan Ki Faseel
Aage Sochen to Mah- o-Meher Ki Umron Se Taweel
Pyar Karne Ko Tadap Uthen Kabhi Itni Jameel
Mahir-e-Fan Ne Koi But Ho Trasha Jaisey
Aage Sochen to Mah- o-Meher Ki Umron Se Taweel
Pichhen Dekhen To Ho Ek
Pal Ka Tamasha Jaise

After Ata Mohammad Shola, the poet who directed his attention to the form of Troile was Naresh Kumar Shaad .

This poem in this form is as follows:



Mayassar To Nahin Hai Shadmani
Magar Dil Intaqaman shadman Hai
Bahut Purdard Hai Meri Kahani
Mayassar To Nahi
n Hai Shadmani
Nahin Mujh Per Kisi Ki Meharbani
Khudai Keya Khuda Meharban Hai
Mayassar To Nahin Hai Shadmani
Magar Dil Intaqaman shadman Hai

Besides them Farhat Kaifi also composed poems in this form. His collected works Patta Patta Boota Boota was also published.Several other poets also wrote Troile but this art did not enjoy universal acceptability because of its strict formulative principles.



Under the influence of English poetry, the concept of modernism in poetry entered into Urdu and writing short pomes came into vogue. These short poems are different from a quartet. Between 1922 and 1947, a short poem was called short because of their shortness. But after 1947 it was acknowledged as a form in Urdu poetry. The concentration of emotion and condensation of narrative were made essential ingredients of a short poem. Earliest example of a short poem is exemplified in Sajjad Haider Yaldarems poem Shimla Kalka Railway Station Ka Ek Nazara(A scene at the Shimla-Kalka Railway Station) which was published in 1926.
The poem is as follow:



Mathe Pe Bindi
Aank Mein Jadu
Honton Ki Bijli
Girti Thi Her Su
Chaal Lachakti
Baat Behakti
Jaise Kisi Ne
Pi Ho Daru Ankhadiyan Aisi
Jin Mein They Rakhsan
Lamhen Mein Radha
Lamhen Mein Rahu
Aisi Bhadak Thi
Khalq thi Hairan
Rail Peh Aaya
Kahan Se Aahu

Abdur-Rehman Bijnauri also wrote a short poem which was published in 1927. It is as follows:

Jamun Ka Saye Tale
Juye Ranwan Aur Neemjan
Shamil Hon Jis Mein Sab Mere
Bachche Aur Unki Nek Maan
Paighamber Ho Ya Shahi
Ya Ho Hayat-e-Jawedan
Mujhko To Bas Dijiyo Yahi
Aab-e-Zalal Aur Neemjan

After that collected works of Makhmoor Julundhery and Khursheed-ul-Islam were published and the trend continued.
A form from Japanese poetry also got a place in Urdu poetry though it is entirely different from Urdu poetry. The rhyme and meter are not found in Japanese poetry though harmony is very much present which is very intricate and different from Urdu. The form adopted from Japanese poetry into Urdu is known as Hyko, a
poem of only three lines. The first line consists of five syllables, second line of seven syllables and the third is again five. The total number of syllables in three lines is seventeen.
In Japanese poetry, hyco is a long poem as well as a short poem and it is free as well. The meaningfullness is vastly present in these poems.

An example of Hyco is as follows:

Nanhi Chidya
Raste Se Mere Hut Jao
Ek Ghoda Aa Raha Hai

All the forms that came from other languages into Urdu were not accepted as they were in the original but with certain modifications. Prose poem is also one such form which after much deliberations and discussions was adopted in Urdu with certain modification and was called Nasri Nazm which is a literal translation of prose poem of English. Some critics consider it a different genre.

However if apoetic experience is powerful and moving then it could be expressed in any form. The element of a prose is its powerful ability to feel. It has the concentration and condensation of thought and feelings like that of a Ghazal.

The prose poem presents a complete milieu for its readers. The flow of the writers of prose poem are never restrained by the form. Those who propagated this genre are Sajjad Zaheer, Meeraji, Balraj Komal, Mohammad Hasan, Khursheed-ul-Islam, Nida Fazli, Qazi Salim, Zubair Rizwi, Adil Mansoori, Baqar Mehdi, Khaleelul Rehman Azmi, Ahmad Nadeem Qasmi, Sheher Yar, Makhmoor Saidi, Kishwer Naheed, and Mohammed Salahuddin Perwez .



The collected work of Khursheed-ul-Islam Jasta-Jasta came out as the first collected works of prose poems. In the present times, the name of Salahuddin Perwez is a distinguished name and has become synonym for a poet who is always experimenting with the form of prose poem.



Dr. Maula Bakhsh while critically examining the poetry of a Pakistani poet Nasir Ahmad Nasir, in his article Nasri Nazm Ke TaJarbe Ka Ek Shair, has thrown some light on existence and status of prose poem. He says: In fact the tradition of writing poetry in prose is very old. The prose writers who overwhelmed by their emotions and romantic thoughts used to fill their writings with different colourful and beautiful similes were categorized by critics as colourful prose writers. Later on it was termed a prose poem. This is how poetry in prose or prose poetry began. But the prose poetry is not merely the name of poetry in prose but the nameof a revolution in thoughts in poetry.(Isteara , 25thJuly 2000. , N delhi, Page-267.)


The objections leveled against prose poetry are mainly related to poetics. The principles of poetic found in the prose poetry of the contemporary poets deviate from the classic concept of poetics. For instance when we read Akhtar-ul-Islamwe find a strong deviation in the diction of poetry. He is able to reproduce that diction of Ghazal which is predominant in the worksof modern poets through a rough prose and exhibited the need for a realm of a new diction for the Nazm.



Akhtar has exhibited an example of an experiment not only in form but also in diction. Ek Ladka(A lad) in the opinion of Prof. Mohammad Hasan is an example of prose poem. At the same time Akhtarís poem Karam Kitabi presents the manifestations of poetics and thought and philosophy of the form.
Look at the poem:

Kitab Rahnuma Hai Na Manzil-e-Maqsood
Yeh Sirf Naqsh-e-Qadam Hai Guzarne walon Ka
Naye Nuqoosh Jise Mahwe Karte Rehte Hain
Hamare Zehnon Se Her
Roz Ek Shagufa Naya
Yahan Peh Khulta Hai Yeh
Rasm Hai Yun Hi Taza
Aur Sairas , Na Zeest , Aaj Koi Zinda Nahin
Woh Roznamcha Mardon Ka Woh Amalnama
Jise Khudaon Ne Likha
tha Kho Gaya Hai Kahin
Manusmriti Na Toret Sab Woh Hangama
Bagula Ban Ke Utha tha Jo So Gya Hai Kahin

In the present age, after Akhtar-ul-Iman Mohammad Salahuddin Perwez is a distinguished name among the poets who are experimenting in the poetry. Some other poets are Satya Pal Anand, Kumar Pashi , Ameeq Hanfi and Amber Behraichi, Salahuddin Perwez is in fact a postmodern poet. The elements of postmodernism are predominantly present in his poetry. Here we find a profound vision of culture besides inter- textuality and the emphasis ison going back to ones roots. Salahuddin Perwez indulges into many experiments in one poem because of his closeness tothe values of inter-textuality. Some times he posits a regular, metered and rhymed couplet in the prose poem to make the poem vocal.



On top of that his diction is formed from the colloquial dialects which are taken directly from their very roots. The eastern dialect(Purabia), Bhojpuri , Punjabi and pure Urdu diction makes his poetry outstandingly distinguished from the whole Urdu poetry. He has really transformed prose poetry into a poetry which could actually be called the rationalization of prose poetry. There are innumerable examples but here I would like to direct your attention to the feelings created by the presence of different climates in his poetry. Here is an excerpt from his well known collected works called Aatma Ke Patra Permatma Ke Nam.

Jaise Sawan Ke Rimjhim Ke Peeche
Bhadon Ke Sanpon
Ka Dera Hota Hai
Jaise Kawar Ke Sannate Ke Peeche
Kartik Ke Chanda Ka Lehra Hota Hai
Jaise Aghan Sardi Ke Peeche
Pus Ka Dasne Wala Kohra Hota Hai
Jaise Magh Ki Madmahat Ke Peeche
Phagun Ki Holi Ka
Phera Hota Hai
Jaise Her Do Ankhon Ke Peeche
Ek Sapna Hota Hai
Waise Hi Har Mousam Mein
Woh Tere Mausam Hon Ya Mere Mausam
Aai Nazm Aai Meri
Azli Mehbooba Main Hota Hoon

This is not surprising that the poet has come closer to prose because the effects of prose on poetry had become obvious just after Sir Syed. In fact the kinds of prose have become prose poem for example the free flowing prose ,the prose with rhyming words and other forms of prose including the colourful prose. The media has brought the world closer and thus the reader is closely related to culture. Thus the visionary feelings have become a predominant element in todayís poetry which could very much be felt in the work of several contemporary poets. For example we can trace the technique of Montage painting and several techniques of cinema in the works of several poets. Thus we can conclusively say that today poetry is passing through new phase of experiments at the level of form which certainly requires another full-fledged conducive article to examine and analyse these experiments.




Dr. Shaikh Aquil Ahmad
(Associate Professor, Department of Urdu,
Satyawati college, University of Delhi)
Address:262-D, Shipra Sun City, Indrapuram Ghaziabad-201010
Mobile No: 09911796525
Website: people.du.ac.in/~aahmad


Duagoh

Ahmad

Last edited by Ahmad Hyderabadi; 12th June 2014 at 07:56 AM..
   
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12th June 2014, 08:54 AM

bahot hii acchii shuruaat ke liye mubaarakbaad denaa chahungaa aapko Ahmad saahab....

main muaafi chahta hoon ke aapka last comment main pooraa nahi padh sakaa, lekin waqt milte hi isse rubaaroo hounga....

aap bas site ki behtarii ke liye lage rahen main aap sab ka behad shukrguzaar hoon....

jazaaq allah

Shaad......


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ufaq
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15th June 2014, 10:14 AM

Bahut zabardast Ahmad sahib.......great sharing.........
   
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15th June 2014, 02:52 PM

i read the above article and the comments.

lagta hai sawaal finally ye ban gaya hai.

'can muslasal ghazal be called nazm and vice versa'

mere khayaaal hai ki dono interchangeable nahi hai.

upar darj saare arguement, daleel ,evidence sirf academic hai , in nature.

poetry is not only a science., its primarily an art.

the difference between a musalsal ghazal and Nazm is also intuitive.

when the rules of prosody are unable to answer a question , we have to look at other components of the literature to provide the answers. now lets turn to poetic rhetoric to see if we get an answer

--

A person may know intuitively that this particular work is a ghazal and this a Nazm.
I can think of various criteria which will push a reader intuition in a particular way..some i say here...

1] TAGHAZZUL- A ghazal must seem ghazal like and not a nazm. people conclusively classify ' chupke chupke raant din'as a ghazal and not a nazm primarily due to its ghazal ethos and nuance.

2] as per modern usage both musalsal ghazal and nazm can employ any theme.but saying this ,some themes are a speciality of ghazals ,furthermore the same theme can be used and one will be called a ghazal sher and the other a nazm band, because ghazal sher might emote the theme through a metaphor and obliqueness. the same theme employed in a direct way may render it a band ( in the given paradigm)

3] the quality of sound is another distinguinsing factor. generally a ghazal sher will not accept harsh sounds , howmuchever they are part of normal urdu and usage. ghazals are more prone to borrow from words derived from persian than from arabic. they will reject arabic particles like 'ul' , though commonly employed in qasidahs and namz bands.

4] a ghazal sher may speak to 'you' , a nazm sher will commonly speak to the soceity.

5] a ghazal sher will just create an atmosphere , whereas a nazm band may give details of an atmosphere.

all said and done there is no master key to distinguish it. it can only be done taking the urdu canons of rhetoric into account. the anwer does not lie in the tules of prosody in this case. but lac of answer does not make the question go away and should not be wished away.

i hope i have been able to prove that musalsal ghazal sher and namz band (in part and in whole composition) are diffrent and treated differently.

( all above is only applicable when the rules of prosody are identical to a composition , as to render it indistinguisable from a musalsal ghazal and a nazm.)
   
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15th June 2014, 07:05 PM

Let me start with one liner definition & that is that musalsal ghazal & nazm both are form of poetry having unique subject developed & concluded with well planning ......so what's the difference between both???......answer is simple.......if both line of first couplet rhyme & this rhyme subsequently found in second lines of following couplets ...in other words rhyming scheme is Aa ba ca da & so on....it is musasal ghazal but it is nazm if don't come into said category .....let me add here in Urdu very few ghazals are found of which all the verses are continuous & which have been composed with excellence of arrangement about different aspect of single theme...muddat huyi hai yaar ko mehmaa'n kiye huye written by Ghalib is a very fine example of such ghazalat...where verses can't be replaced with each other ....so is not true with chupke chupke raat din aan'su bahaana by hasrat mohani..where changes in the order of verses don't make any effect on the meaning of ghazal...while both are musalsal ghazals...perhaps this is why some ancient scholars identify ghalib's mentioned ghazal as a nazm and describe hasrat mohani ghazal's as musalsal ghazal but the later scholars including s.r.faruqi counted both of them as musalsal ghazal .........

With due respect of zidd sahab i think musalsal ghazal & nazm are two different forms of poetry plus could be find their difference easily on the base of prosody.....
   
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15th June 2014, 07:22 PM

ufaq sahab with due respect the point is missed entirely by you.

the comparison is not between a ghazal and a nazm..the comparison is between a musalsal ghazal and a type of nazm

please read this as written above:

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all above is only applicable when the rules of prosody are identical to a composition , as to render it indistinguisable from a musalsal ghazal and a nazm
it is a debate on a very very fine point, not a general debate between musalsal ghazal and a nazm.

what i say only applies when :
the composition is

1]of 2 misras per sher
2]has radeef and qafiya(normally)
3]has a central theme or topic
4]has a traditional meter.

this debate then arises , now if that is a musalsal ghazal or it can be called a nazm also.. the rules of prosody and normal classifications dont apply...then recourse has to be taken in rhetoric to categorize it..

and in this express case i outlined how rhetoric can be employed when all other tools fail.

you have mistaken the debate to be a normal debate between a ghazal and nazm. i thought the frame of debate was apparent so didnt elaborate, but i guess i have to do it now.

one cannot frame the entire question again and again in every subsequent thread..one has to take the cue from the preceding thread.

but i did frame the question and it does not say that this is a discussion between a ghazal and a nazm...i guess that is too basic and passe for both you and me.

regards

Last edited by zidd; 15th June 2014 at 07:25 PM..
   
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15th June 2014, 10:48 PM

Kaash ye conversation hindi ya urdu meN hota. Shayad maiN bhi kuch samajh pata


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15th June 2014, 10:58 PM

Haan mujhe bhi yahi lagta hai ke yeh posts aur conversation sab roman hindi me hona chahiye. ...taaki sab samajh sake...

Sab kuch bohat complicated sa lag raha...at least at my end....

Bohat si bateiN sar ke upar se jaa rahi hain...




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15th June 2014, 11:01 PM

Quote:
Originally Posted by zainy View Post
Haan mujhe bhi yahi lagta hai ke yeh posts aur conversation sab roman hindi me hona chahiye. ...taaki sab samajh sake...

Sab kuch bohat complicated sa lag raha...at least at my end....

Bohat si bateiN sar ke upar se jaa rahi hain...
koi nahi kal translate kar denge...no issue

its all very simple actually
   
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17th June 2014, 04:52 PM

bhaisaab we are still waiting for the translation... itnii accchii baaten jo aap membraan ne hame bataai hain agar itne hard english ke bajaaay simple language (urdu/hindi) me kahi jaae to kyaa baat ho... warna hame to yoon lagega ke hamaare paas se hokar koi cheeez guzar gayee aur ham badkismaton ki tarah use dekhte hi rah gaye....

Zidd sir, please thoda waqt nikaal kar brief me hi translate kar den....

mehrbaani...

Shaad....


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8th August 2014, 01:30 AM

Ahmad sahab pehle to aapka the dil shukriya ada karna chahuga jo aapne itni ahem baaten batayi yaqeenan ye ham jaiso k liye bohat zaruri hai kafi faiz hasil hota hai lekin afsos k main sab kuch samajh nahi paaya bohat kuch sir k upar se gaya plzzz koi jald ise translate karde iske translate ka intezaar rahe ga



safar yun hi Kat jaye khushyon bhara
sa
dua hai rahe saath yun hi hamara
ye mehfil hamesha sab yun hi sajana
ham na ho jahaa'n me to yaad rakhe zamana



I like 2 wlk in rain bez its hide my
tears bcz

My smile is fake.......
   
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